GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption. During the past 25 years of digital information development, industry-wide discussion has progressed from resolving technology issues for managing GI to establishing policy for accessing it, especially in the public sector. Geographic Information: Value, Pricing, Production and Consumption brings the producer and consumer arguments together, providing a fresh perspective on the emotional and territorial issues of IPR (intellectual property rights) protection and liberation. Unashamedly Euro-centric, the authors deliberately move the conceptual debates away from USA Freedom of Information principles into a consideration of the multi-national, multi-cultural, and socially complex information contexts of Europe, Africa, and Asia..... Cũng như những thư viện tài liệu khác được thành viên chia sẽ hoặc do sưu tầm lại và chia sẽ lại cho các bạn với mục đích tham khảo , chúng tôi không thu tiền từ bạn đọc ,nếu phát hiện nội dung phi phạm bản quyền hoặc vi phạm pháp luật xin thông báo cho chúng tôi,Ngoài giáo án bài giảng này, bạn có thể tải Tải tài liệu luận văn,bài tập phục vụ tham khảo Vài tài liệu tải về mất font không xem được, có thể máy tính bạn không hỗ trợ font củ, bạn tải các font .vntime củ về cài sẽ xem được.

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption ` 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption Roger A. Longhorn Michael Blakemore Boca Raton London New York CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business ` 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487‑2742 © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid‑free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑8493‑3414‑6 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the conse‑ quences of their use. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978‑750‑8400. CCC is a not‑for‑profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Longhorn, Roger A. Geographic information : value, pricing, production, and consumption / Roger A. Longhorn and Michael Blakemore. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978‑0‑8493‑3414‑6 (alk. paper) 1. Geographical information systems‑‑Economic aspects. I. Blakemore, M. J. II. Title. G70.212.L656 2008 910.285‑‑dc22 2007025544 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com ` 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Contents Preface......................................................................................................................ix Acknowledgments..............................................................................................xiii About.the.Authors................................................................................................xv Chapter.1. Introduction.......................................................................................1 1.1 What is geographic information?.........................................................2 1.2 Is geographic information unique?......................................................7 1.3 Valuing information...............................................................................9 1.4 The debate on charging for public sector geographic information ...........................................................................................11 1.5 Overview of the contents.....................................................................15 References.......................................................................................................20 Chapter.2. Determining.the.value.of.geographic.information.................23 2.1 Introduction...........................................................................................23 2.1.1 Information value is in the eye of the beholder....................24 2.1.2 What type of value to measure? .............................................25 2.2 Valuing Geographic Information .......................................................29 2.2.1 Value changes with time, purpose, and use .........................30 2.2.2 The relationship between cost and value..............................31 2.2.3 Value determined by class of ownership, public vs. private.........................................................................................31 2.2.4 Summarizing issues in the GI value debate..........................32 2.3 Value theory...........................................................................................34 2.4 The information market and the information economy.................35 2.4.1 Information as an intangible asset.........................................36 2.4.2 The role of technology and infrastructure............................37 2.5 The value chain.....................................................................................38 2.5.1 The information value chain...................................................39 2.5.2 Which information value chain for GI?.................................40 2.6 Different components of value for GI ................................................42 2.6.1 Value of the location attribute in GI.......................................42 ` 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC vi Contents 2.6.2 Time dependency value of GI .................................................43 2.6.3 Value determined by cost savings..........................................44 2.6.4 Adding value via information management techniques and tools.................................................................45 2.6.5 Value due to legal or other mandatory use requirements..............................................................................45 2.6.6 Value due to network effects...................................................46 2.6.7 Value due to quality of an information resource .................46 2.7 Value of geographic information to economies and society...........48 2.7.1 Commercial value of GI...........................................................48 2.7.2 Economic value of GI................................................................48 2.7.3 Socioeconomic value of GI.......................................................49 2.7.4 Valuing the economic contribution of public sector GI.......50 2.7.5 Value of GI as underpinning for other information and services................................................................................53 2.7.6 Intangible benefits: value unquantifiable in monetary terms ...........................................................................................53 2.8 The changing value of geographic information...............................54 2.8.1 Increasing the value of GI........................................................54 2.8.2 Restricting the value of GI.......................................................55 2.8.3 Value of GIS and other GI visualization systems.................56 2.9 Conclusions............................................................................................58 References.......................................................................................................58 Chapter.3. The.business.of.GI:.No.such.thing.as.a.free.lunch..................63 3.1 The turbulent interplay of price, cost, and value..............................63 3.2 Access, demand, resource, and information supply........................67 3.3 Is there such a thing as an informational free lunch: the commons?..............................................................................................70 3.4 Resourcing the interfaces between supply, demand, and update ....................................................................................................76 3.5 Can a free lunch be sustained? ...........................................................78 3.6 Development, exploitation, and public investment .........................85 References.......................................................................................................88 Chapter.4. Pricing.information:.The.interaction.of.mechanism.and. policy...............................................................................................95 4.1 Pricing theories......................................................................................95 4.1.1 First-degree price discrimination...........................................95 4.1.2 Second-degree price discrimination......................................96 4.1.3 Third-degree price discrimination.........................................97 4.2 Extending pricing theory.....................................................................98 4.2.1 Zero-degree price discrimination ..........................................99 ` 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ... - tailieumienphi.vn 658365

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