Tài liệu miễn phí Sinh học

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Effect of early post emergent herbicides/ herbicide mixtures on weed control and soil biological activity in maize L

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of herbicides on weed control and soil microbial activity. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments laid out RCBD. The treatments consisted of herbicides viz., atrazine, 2,4-D, tembotrione, topramezone and their tank mixtures sprayed at 16 DAS as early post emergent herbicides, they were checked against recommended weed management practice- atrazine 1.25 kg ha -1 (PRE) + 1HW + 1IC, sequential application-atrazine (PRE) fb 2,4-D,Weed free and weedy check. The results indicated that significantly lower weed density (7.67 per 0.5 m2 ), Weed index (7.07 %) was observed with application of topramezone + 2,4-D next to recommended weed management practices. The next best treatment was tembotrione + 2,4-D. The mixtures recorded broad spectrum weed control than sole application of herbicides. Higher biological activity with respect to dehydrogenase activity (8.70 μg TPF g -1 soil day-1 ) was observed in topramezone + 2,4-D. Higher grain yield (5582 kg ha-1 ) and net returns (53769 ₹ ha-1 ) was recorded in topramezone + 2,4-D next to recommended weed management practice. However weedy check was inferior to all other treatments.

1/12/2020 11:28:58 AM +00:00

Optimization of composite protein- lipid film by ohmic heating using mixture design

Protein-lipid film is a very popular food material which can be prepared from various protein foods. A remarkable example of the protein-lipid film is a traditional soybean food which is a cream-yellow bland flavoured surface film of high nutritional value (soy protein-lipid film, designated as Yuba or soymilk skin), which is formed during the heating of soymilk. The protein digestion rate of the protein-lipid film is almost 100%.The objective of this study was to optimize the production of the composite protein lipid film using ohmic heating method, which has a significant effect on the quality of film produced over the conventional water bath heating, from blends of soy milk, peanut milk and fresh corn milk according to D-optimal mixture design approach. Results demonstrated that soy milk, peanut milk and fresh corn milk had noticeable effect on yield and protein content of the film. Multi-response optimization using all of the regression models was performed with the Design-Expert software, using its defaults settings to construct a desirability score that balances all of the fitted models. The methodology of the desired function was applied and the optimum level of various process variables was obtained as, Soy milk 0.57 Peanut milk 0.4 and corn milk 0.03, which gives the maximum of 21.44 g/100ml yield and 56.83% protein content with overall desirability value of 0.81.Other responses like colour, rehydration capacity and thickness of the film found to have no significant effect with the different milk formulations.

1/12/2020 11:28:45 AM +00:00

Functional properties of apple pomace powder

Apple pomace powder was analyzed for its functional properties which showed water holding capacity and fat absorption capacity of 3.39 g/g and 0.97 ml/g, respectively. Foam of apple pomace powder was not stable. Hypoglycemic potential of dietary fibers in managing diabetes is very well documented. In present study, the effect of apple pomace powder on α–amylase, glucose diffusion and glucose adsorption were studied by using in vitro studies. The mechanism by which dietary fiber of apple pomace powder could exerts hypoglycemic effect includes inhibiting amylase activity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose diffusion retardation index. α- amylase inhibition ration in apple pomace powder was observed 80 per cent. Glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI) was maximum at 30 min (69.23%) while found decreased after 30 minutes. Glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) of apple pomace powder increased gradually with increase of glucose concentration. All of these mechanisms contribute towards the rate of reduction of glucose adsorption in the intestine, as a result, decrease the postprandial serum glucose concentration.

1/12/2020 11:28:34 AM +00:00

Effect of spacing and fertility levels on yield and productivity of multi-cut forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

A field experiment was conducted for Evaluation of Spacing and Fertility Levels for Multi-Cut Forage Sorghum. It was found that maximum increase in maximum increase in green and dry fodder yield was obtained with spacing 30 cm x 10 cm (54.77 and 15.91 t/ha, respectively) with the highest net returns ( 44881 /ha) and B-C ratio (1.41) and application of 125% RDF proved most economically as it recorded highest net returns ( 46607 /ha) and B C ratio (1.42) compared to 75% RDF and 100% RDF.

1/12/2020 11:27:50 AM +00:00

Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from banana Pseudostem

Banana pseudostem comprises several polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin that constitute fibers with good mechanical properties. These sugars can be used for production of various organic acids and alcohol. With the availability of such huge biomass as substrate, a wide range of microorganisms like bacteria and fungi grow on it. Lactic acid bacteria can grow on such sugars and can be isolated from banana pseudostem. In present study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from banana pseudostem core using MRS agar. The pseudo stem central core harbored the highest LAB population of 20.1 x 103 cfu/ g. The isolates showed varied morphological characteristics like oval, creamy, pin head colonies on MRS agar plates. LAB isolates also assimilated different carbon sources like glucose, dextrose, sucrose, fructose and lactose. Such isolates can further be used for fermentation studies with pseudostem as substrate.

1/12/2020 11:26:33 AM +00:00

Depression and living patterns in old age

Greying of population can be viewed both as a concern as well as an opportunity. Preparing in advance is the key to harvest the benefits of the vast experience and skill the old population holds thereby contributing towards the building of nation. Countries everywhere outside Africa are rapidly growing older. With the change in our economy there comes the sea change in our traditional family system. In this era of globalization, our budding generation is busy in their careers while parents are struggling alone with their age related issues. This study was conducted with the objective of unravelling the relationship of living pattern with depression among elderly population. Samples were drawn equally from three settings i.e. those living with children, living alone and those living in institutions like old age homes. The result highlighted that the depression experienced by elderly living with children is reportedly least and highest in case of those living alone.

1/12/2020 11:26:11 AM +00:00

Seasonal incidence, comparative field efficacy of chemical insecticides and their economics for management Brinjal shoot and fruit borer leucinodes Orbanalis (Guenee)

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2015-16 in central research farm of Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad to evaluate the field efficacy of certain chemicals against shoot and fruit borer on Brinjal. The occurrence of Shoot and Fruit Borer commenced from 34th standard week (August fourth week) with an average population of 0.90 larvae/plant. The shoot and fruit borer population increased and gradually reached its peak level of 6.56 larvae/plant at 40th standard week (October first week). There after declined trend was observed as temperature increased and temperature between 30-37 0C favoured the multiplication of shoot and fruit borer. The per cent population reduction of Brinjal shoot and fruit borer on third, seventh and fourteenth days after spraying revealed that Chlorantroniliprole found superior over all the treatments followed by Spinosad and Emamectin benzoate.

1/12/2020 11:26:00 AM +00:00

Performance of durum wheat (Triticum durum) genotypes under variable sowing dates in sub-tropical zone of Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir

A field experiment was conducted at research farm of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu on sandy loam soil of Sub-tropical zone of Jammu division to investigate the effect of sowing dates and genotypes on growth, yield and nitrogen uptake of durum wheat (Triticum durum) for two consecutive rabi seasons. The treatments comprised of two sowing dates viz. D1-normal sown and D2-late sown in the main plot, and four genotypes viz. PBW-34, PDW-233, WH-896 and PBW-343 in the sub plots were evaluated under split plot design with three replications. Results revealed that variety PBW-343 recorded significant higher number of ear heads, grain and biological yield per m2 area than that of all other genotypes. Among sowing dates, normal sown wheat crop recorded significant higher grain and biomass yield as compared to late sown wheat. In normal sown wheat (D1), N uptake in grain was also recorded significantly higher in both the consecutive years whereas, among different genotypes, PBW-343 recorded highest N uptake in grain and straw in second year of cropping.

1/12/2020 11:25:49 AM +00:00

Bioremediation of crude oil polluted terrestrial soil using Aspergillus clavatus and Pichia spp.

In Nigeria, crude oil pollution challenge of the terrestrial environment is very prevalent. Soil fungi play very important role in the degradation of organic materials, as well as agents of the biogeochemical cycles. Fungi have an advantage over bacteria due to their production of hyphae that can penetrate contaminated soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioremediation potential of two fungal species: Aspergillus clavatus and Pichia spp. Crude oil contaminated soil samples were collected from Numuu Mitee, Kegbara-Dere community in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State; Nigeria. There were four experimental setups for the bioremediation study; Soil without organisms served as control(A), soil with Aspergillus clavatus alone (B), soil sample with Pichia spp. alone (C), while soil with Aspergillus clavatus and Pichia spp combined (D). Standard microbiological methods were used to analyze total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi. The following physicochemical parameters; pH, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate, and total hydrocarbon content (THC) were analysed for baseline and monitored every 7days for 28days. Molecular identification of the organisms was also carried out using 16S rRNA amplification. The results of the baseline were as follows; pH 6.9, nitrate 52mg/kg, phosphorus 149mg/kg, THC 8,006.58mg/kg, total heterotrophic fungi 3.8 x 104 cfu/g and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi 2.3 x 103 cfu/g.

1/12/2020 11:25:36 AM +00:00

Characterization and classification of the soils of Bino-river watershed in Almora district of Uttarakhand, India for perspective land use planning

Soils of Bino-river watershed in Almora district of Uttarakhand, India in north western Himalayas were characterised and classified for land categorisation and perspective land use planning. On the basis of interpretation of remote sensing data and ground truth verification three broad landforms viz., ridge tops, side slopes and valleys were identified and further sub-divided into seven landform units based on slope gradients. Nine types of soils (Pedons 1 to 9) were identified in the watershed area. Soils of valleys (Pedons 1 to 3) occur on gentle to moderates lopes and are moderately deep to very deep, well to somewhat excessively drained, sandy loam, gravelly sandy loam and loamy sand to sand in texture and slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.11 to 6.98) in reaction. They haveA-B-C horizons in pedon 1, being classified as coarse loamy Dystric Eutrudepts and A-C horizons in pedons 2 and 3, being classified as loamy skeletal Typic Udorthents and Typic Udipsamments. They are evaluated as class III and V lands. Soils of side slopes (Pedons 4 to 7) occur on moderate to steep slopes and are shallow to moderately shallow in depth, well to excessively drained, sandy loam, gravelly sandy loam and gravelly loamy sand in texture and moderately acidic to slightly acidic (pH 5.52 to 6.49) in reaction. They have AC horizons being classified as coarse loamy, sandy skeletal/loamy skeletal, Typic/Lithic Udorthents.

1/12/2020 11:25:09 AM +00:00

Host plant resistance in different black gram cultivars against anthracnose

Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] is one of the most important grain legumes and attacked by several foliar diseases that cause premature drying of leaves, resulting in reduced black gram yields. An experiment was conducted to find out the stable source of resistance against Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum). Total of six cultivars (PU-30, PU-31, PU-38, PU-40, PUI-94-1 and TAU-1)of Black gram were evaluated under in micro plots in Agronomy farm at Rajasthan college of agriculture, Udaipur during 2013 and 2014 kharif season. The most virulent isolate (MVL) was utilized to screen the six cultivars. Out of six cultivars, two cultivars PU-31 and PU-30 were found to be moderately resistant with per cent disease index (PDI) of 28.40 and 31.40 respectively. Two cultivars PU-38 and PU-40 were found moderately susceptible with PDI of 39.60 and 42.90 respectively. The remaining two cultivars TAU-1 and PUI-94-1 were susceptible with PDI of 47.20 and 51.40 respectively. The study resulted in identification of two moderately resistant cultivars (PU-30 and PU-31) can further be utilized in resistant breeding program.

1/12/2020 11:24:58 AM +00:00

Vegetation cover in Rudat Norah and morphmetric analysis of wadi Al-Atsh watershed, Northwester Riyadh region

Vegetation Cover in Rawdat Norah was estimated to be 0.635 Km 2 or 16.2% of the total area of the Rawdat which is 3.924 km2 . The main dominant vegetation is Rhazya strica. Some morphometric properties and the characteristics of the watercourse system affecting the capacity of the Wadi Al-Atsh watershed to transform rainwater into surface runoff water had been determined. Accordingly, the drainage area of Wadi Al-Atsh has been calculated and found to be 13899.7 km2 , where the watershed length reaches 170.9 km, and the average width of Wadi Al-Atash watershed also reached 81.3 km. The form factor ratio was found to be less than 1.277 indicating that the shape of the watershed is not circular in shape, the shape of Wadi Al-Atsh watershed is located within the relatively rectangular watersheds where its elongation reaches 0.78. This study also proven that the watercourse network system is similar to the dendritic drainage system with a total of 1759 watercourses, which confirms the ability of the water watershed to turn the rainwater into surface running water which may end with devastating foods. This study indicated that management of rangeland must incorporate to conserve vegetation and biodiversity of ephemeral streams in hyper-arid and arid regions.

1/12/2020 11:24:48 AM +00:00

Studies on biochemical composition of different parts of berries and wine quality of wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.)

The study was conducted on six red wine varieties (Syrah, Caladoc, Grenache Noir, Tempranillo, Cabernet Franc and Nielluccio) at the farm of ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune. Five year old vines of these varieties were selected for the study. The grapes were harvested at about 23°Brix TSS. Anthocyanins, total phenols, tannins, reducing sugar, carbohydrate and protein were quantified in different parts of berries viz.; seed, skin and pulp. Among the different varieties, TSS and acidity showed non-significant effect while highest pH value (3.56) was found in Tempranillo and lowest (3.42) in Cabernet Franc. However, volatile acids were maximum in Grenache Noir (0.13) and minimum in Caladoc variety (0.10). The biochemical parameters like Anthocyanin in pulp and skin varied significantly among different varieties. In wine quality parameters, variety Caladoc recorded highest pH and ethanol % while Cabernet Franc, Grenache Noir, Syrah and Tempranillo showed highest volatile acids, total acids, mallic acid and glucose: fructose ratio respectively. The varieties Cabernet Franc and Syrah were found better for biochemical contents and wine quality.

1/12/2020 11:24:35 AM +00:00

Changes in sensory and microbiological parameters of paneer nuggets prepared by steam cooking method under storage conditions

Starting with the paneer as a base material, paneer nugget was prepared by the addition of food additives such as spices mix, condiments, refined wheat flour, skim milk powder and sodium caseinate by steam cooking method. Keeping in view of the health benefits, the steam cooking method was used for preparation of paneer nuggets as compared to deep fat frying.The present study was envisaged to evaluate the changes occurred in sensory and microbiological parameters of paneer nugget under storage conditions. The shelf-life of paneer nuggets with aerobic packaging was found to be 2 and 9 days respectively at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Nine-point hedonic scale was employed to carry out the evaluation of samples for sensory attributes such as colour and appearance, texture, sweetness, flavour and overall acceptability.

1/12/2020 11:24:15 AM +00:00

Combining ability studies for fiber quality traits in desi cotton (Gossipium Arboreum L.)

Twenty four hybrid combinations derived by crossing six arboreum lines (PA 713, PA 743, PA 734, PA760, PA 720, PAIG 326) with four arboreum testers (PA 255, PA 402, PA 08, PA 528) were tested along with their parents including two checks (PKVDH 1, SWADESHI 651). The observations on five fiber quality traits were recorded on randomly selected five plants. Among ten parental lines, four lines were found to be the best general combiners. PA 760 and PA 255 showed good general combiner for 2.5 per cent span length, PA 743, PA 734, PA 08, PA 255 showed good general combiner for fibre fineness (micronaire) and PA 720 and PA 760 among females and PA 255 in males showed good gca for short fibre index and fibre strength. Likewise PAIG 326 and PA 720 showed same for uniformity ratio in desirable direction. The study of sca revealed that the cross PA 734 x PA 528 exhibited significant high sca effect for 2.5 per cent span length, fiber strength and showed significant negative sca effect for short fibre index. Whereas the cross PA 760 x PA 402 exhibited positive significant sca effects for fibre strength and uniformity ratio. Similarly the crosses PAIG 326 x PA 255 and PA 734 x PA 528 showed significant negative sca effect for short fibre index.

1/12/2020 11:23:54 AM +00:00

Differentiation of dermal muscle in chin region of prenatal goat (Capra hircus)

The study was conducted on the skin of 36 goat foetus between 23 to 150 days of gestation with objective to record the sequential histological changes that take place during the differentiation of muscles in the dermis of chin region of prenatal goat. The material was divided into three groups viz. Group I (below 50 days of gestation), Group II (51-100 days of gestation) and Group III (101 days of gestation to full term) containing 12 foetii each group. The skin samples were collected and processed and stained as per standard histological technique. In the dermis of chin region the muscles began to appear as myocyte at the age of 70 days gestation and were usually localized in the deeper half of dermis. They assumed fiber like profile from 75 days gestation and from 99 days gestation the differentiating muscle fibers showed resemblance to the characters of skeletal muscles. Distinct cross striations in the muscles of dermis became evident from 106 days of gestation. From 108 days onwards the skeletal muscles gradually became pronounced and extended superficially in the dermis. These muscles were is close apposition to sinus hair follicles present in the region but were not associated to the ordinary hair follicles. The arrector pili muscles which are generally found with hair follicles of other regions were not observed in the dermis of chin region.

1/12/2020 11:23:29 AM +00:00

Detection methods for seed borne pathogens

Seed is the custodian of the genetic, potential of any cultivar and determines the limits of productivity in any cropping system. So awareness for seed health has increased among the growers, traders and consumers in recent years. A seed-borne inoculum not only secures the presence of a virulent strain of the pathogen along the seed but also favors the earliest possible establishment of the infection in seedlings along with possible threat of introduction of new physiological races/stains with seed. With the guidelines of ISTA a number of detection methods starting from visual observation to PCR based molecular methods are being used for the detection of fungi, bacteria, virus and other seed borne pathogen. As detection of seed borne pathogens is the first line approach in managing seed borne diseases of plants so new methods of detection along with seed health testing approach are necessary to avoid the constraints in seed production and to reduce the cost for disease management in agriculture.

1/12/2020 11:23:18 AM +00:00

Development of barcodes for identification of Zygotic and Nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Study on the seedling progenies of three polyembryonic varieties was carried out to differentiate zygotic and nucellar seedlings through molecular characterization. The fingerprinting showed variation across the varieties of selected seedling progenies. The variety Peach exhibited 100% zygotic seedlings among the varieties screened. The variety Nekkare was found to be 36.84% zygotic and minimum number of zygotic seedlings (10.52 %) was observed in Bappakkai. In breeding program as it is difficult to identify hybrid progenies of zygotic origin and identification of zygotic seedlings from nucellar is vital for a hybridization programme, wherein polyembryonic varieties are used as one of the parents. Hence, molecular markers are vital in identifying the seedlings in order to characterize the seedling progenies and parents by developing the barcodes of polyembryonic mango varieties to utilize in crop improvement.

1/12/2020 11:22:45 AM +00:00

Isolation and characterization of potential probiotic strains isolated from traditional Indian fermented foods

The present study explored the traditional Indian fermented food samples for potential probiotic strains with superior probiotic properties to that of commercially available strain. A total of 102 food samples were collected aseptically and 200 isolates were purified using MRS media. 132 were identified as Gram-positive bacteria and 43 were identified as yeast cultures. On the basis of morphological and biochemical properties, 120 isolates were provisionally identified as Lactobacillus spp. These isolates were evaluated for desired probiotic properties such as acid, bile and pancreatin tolerance, and only seven isolates were found to pass these tests. These seven isolates were further evaluated for other properties, including carbohydrate fermentation, autoaggregation, haemolysis and antibiotic resistance profile, on the basis of which, the strains 4A and 21C were found to have excellent probiotic potential and were also found superior when compared with the commercially available probiotic strain (control) Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS).

1/12/2020 11:22:33 AM +00:00

Correlation studies in the induced mutant population of cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (l.) Taub.]

Variability studies provide information on the extent of improvement possible in different characters, but they do not throw light on the extent and nature of relationship existing between yield and various contributory characters. Character association or correlation is a measure of the degree of association between two characters. A knowledge regarding the association of various characters among themselves and with economic characters is necessary for making indirect selection for improvement of economic characters. The gamma radiation induced 190 M4 mutant lines of cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] obtained from Centre for Biotechnological Research (CBR), College of Horticulture, Bengaluru were used for the field experimentation at College of Horticulture, Mysore. Such collected 190 M 4 mutants of cluster bean were investigated for various yield and its associated characters. The data was recorded on number of days to 50 per cent flowering, number of days to 50 per cent maturity, number of days to harvest, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod breadth, pod length, number of pods per cluster, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, ten pods weight (g), pod yield per plant (g), seeds per pod, seed yield per plant (g), 100-seed weight (g). Analysis of variance revealed highly significant difference among the mutants for all the characters studied. Correlation revealed highly significant and positive association of vegetable pod yield and other yield component characters.

1/12/2020 11:22:07 AM +00:00

Influence of pollen grains in allergic diseases

In this study is presented the influence of different plant’s pollen grains on the spread of allergic diseases in people sensitive to allergic factor living in Elbasan region of Albania for 2018. To achieve this goal, allergy tests have been performed by prick test on a number of individuals who have shown signs of allergies. 10 plant alergenes (Alnus glutinosa, Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia sp., Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, Parietaria officinalis, Phleum pratense, Platanus orientalis, Quercus sp., Secale cereale) were used and the variability of allergenic disease by pollen was studied by age group, place of residence, gender and months of the year. From the study it turned out that the worst affected age group is 20-30 years old; the largest number of allergy sufferers was in the city, Alnus glutinosa was the main cause of the allergic diseases and the largest number of people suffering during the spring seasons.

1/12/2020 11:21:56 AM +00:00

Diffusion and adoption of JG-11 bengal Gram variety by farmers of Yadgir district, Karnataka

The study was conducted in Shorapur and Yadagir taluks of Yadagir district on impact of JG-11 bengal gram on farmers revealed that the practices namely foliar application of urea, use of growth promoter after 35 days (NAA) were followed by only 15.00% of farmers. Very few farmers followed fertilizer application as recommended. Higher average yield was obtained by farmers in Shorapur taluk with 10.50 q/ha followed by Yadgir farmers with 10.00 q/ha. In case of Annigeri-1 variety average yield of 8.00q/ha. was obtained by Yadgir farmers followed by 7.50 q/ha by Shorapur farmers. Very few farmers were growing desi varieties with average yield of 4.25q/ha. In case of JG 11 the C:B ratio was 1:2.3 and it was 1:1.86 in Annigeri-1. Most of the farmers came to know about the variety within last one year (70.00%) and two years (23 %) and got the information through Dept. of Agriculture (90.00 %) under the programme of seed distribution on subsidy and only 10.00 per cent got through University scientists. Majority expressed continued adoption of JG-11 (60.00 %) and even expand the area under JG-11 provided they are assured of price of at least Rs. 4000=00 per qtl.

1/12/2020 11:21:13 AM +00:00

Potential of Trichoderma Harzianum as a biocontrol agent against Striga Hermonthica in sorghum

A series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted at the Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), National Centre for Research (NCR) and College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST), Sudan, to examine the efficacy of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum, culture age, inoculum type, application time, fungal extract, compost and bacterial strain on Striga hermonthica germination and sorghum infestation. The highest significant (P≤0.05) inhibition on S. hermonthica germination was obtained at 10 days by T. harzianum culture as compared to both controls. Application of all T. harzianum aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts concentrations significantly (P≤0.05) reduced S. hermonthica seed germination as compared to the corresponding control. T. harzianum inoculum extracted by ethyl acetate reduced germination by 97%. T. harzianum aqueous 100% induced germination during conditioning by 64 % in response to GR24 (0.1ppm). All types of T. harzianum inoculum (Autoclaved, culture and filtrate) significantly (P≤0.05) reduced germination, with application of T. harzianum culture filtrate gave the highest reduction on germination as compared to control and other inoculums. Application of the 3 inoculums at 2 hours reduced germination percentage more than at 4 hours. Filtrate and culture inoculums at 2 hours reduced germination by 79 and 68%, respectively. The combination of compost 100%+ T. harzianum + BMP+Flavobacterium reduced germination by 68%. The greenhouse results showed that the combination of compost plus BMP+ Flavobacterium gave lowest number of S. hermonthica emergence and the highest sorghum plant height. The combinations of compost with T. harzianum and with BMP+ Flavobacterium significantly reduced S. hermonthica dry weight, increased sorghum shoot and root dry weight insignificantly as compared to the control.

1/12/2020 11:20:59 AM +00:00

A comparative study on nutritional profile and antinutrients of buckwheat fractions (Fagopyrum esculentum)

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an annual crop, it is a pseudo cereal but its grains belong to cereals because of their similar use and chemical composition. Buckwheat grains and other tissues contain numerous neutraceutical compounds. A Comparative study on Nutritional profile and Antinutrients of buckwheat fractions was conducted at Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Home Science, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. The chemical analysis of buckwheat fractions buckwheat whole (BW), buckwheat groats (BG) and buckwheat husk (BH )for proximate composition revealed significant difference for moisture, fat, ash, protein, fibre and energy. Protein was significantly higher in BG (14.88g/100g) than BW (11.34g/100g) and BH (9.91g/100g). It was observed that all three fractions of buckwheat exhibited almost similar values of carbohydrate content which ranged from 66.35g/100g in BW to 71.25g/100g in BH. The significant difference was found between fractions for calcium, Iron, and Zinc. In case of calcium, BH recorded higher value 149.66 ppm than BW and BG (76.80 ppm and 38.13 ppm). The anti-nutritional factors viz., tannin and phytic acid were analyzed in all flour fractions. Tannin content was found to be highest in BH (5.54%) than BW (4.15%) and BG (4.15%). The phytic acid content was found lowest in BG (6.23%) than BW (18.36%) and BH (18.30%) and the difference was significant (p >0.05).

1/12/2020 11:20:34 AM +00:00

Isolation and morphological characterization of endophytic fungi isolated from ten different varieties of mango

Endophytes are the microbes that colonize the healthy tissues of plant. Endophytes associated with Mangifera indica (mango) are less understood. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated fromten different mango varieties viz., Alphonso, Totapuri, Neelam, Anfas, Willard, Badam model, Khaderi, Pancharasi, White Sari and KisanBhog from Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Endophytic fungi were isolated fromleaf and stem tissues. Nine endophytic fungi were isolated from Alphonso out of which four were from leaf and five were from stem tissues. Two endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaf tissue of Totapuri, and five from the stem tissue. From Neelam, only four endophytic fungi were isolated from stem tissue and no endophytic fungi grew from the leaf tissue. One endophytic fungi was isolated from leaf and stem tissue each from Anfas, Willard, Badam Model, Kadari, Pancharasi and White sari, whereas two fungi were isolated from leaf tissue of KisanBogh and one from stem tissue. The isolates were studied for to their morphological characters and naming was done based on the variety and the part isolated.

1/12/2020 11:20:12 AM +00:00

Study on morpho-physical characters of mango flower varieties/hybrids in Kodur agro-climatic conditions

Inflorescence characteristics of 30 mango genotypes were studied during the period 2013 to 2014. There were distinct variations among the findings of the germplasm on inflorescence characters. Wide variations were observed in relation to the length of the inflorescence, width of the inflorescence, total number of flowers per inflorescence, number of male flowers per inflorescence, % perfect flower, % fruit set per panicle ranging from 13.17 cm to 43.17 cm, 10.03 cm to 32.23 cm, 887.33 to 4242.00, 840.00 to 3655.33, 3.53 % to 37.33 and 3.35 % to 35.07, respectively. The mango cv. Bangalora was top of the list in case of the length of the inflorescence (43.17 cm), width of the inflorescence (32.23 cm), total number of flowers per inflorescence (4242.00), number of male flowers per inflorescence (3655.33). The maximum % of perfect flower (37.33 %) and percentage of fruit set per panicle (35.07 %) was noted in mango cv. Neelum.

1/12/2020 11:20:01 AM +00:00

A comparative study on CD4 count and sputum smear examination by fluorescent microscopy in retroviral positive patients in a Tertiary care centre

TB is the most common opportunistic infection (OI) among HIV infected individuals, and co infected individuals are at high risk of death. TB is the largest single cause of death in the setting of AIDS, accounting for 26% of AIDS related deaths, 99% of which occur in developing countries. HIV Associated Tuberculosis remains a major global public health challenge. Hence routine TB screening among PLWHA (People Living with HIV-AIDS) offers the opportunity to identify those without TB, helps for early diagnosis and promptly treat TB. The aims of the study are 1. To know the prevalence of HIV/TB Co-infection in a Tertiary care centre in a rural area 2. To find the CD4 count which gives Sputum smear positivity and negativity. Through Sputum smear examination by Fluorescent microscopy, routine HIV Testing by Rapid Test methods and CD4 count by Flowcytometry method are planned for this prospective study. In this study, out of 65 HIV positive Patients 30 (46%) had TB HIV coinfection, were started on Antituberculous treatment and remaining 35 (54%) were retroviral positive only. Prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection is 46% among the sample size in this study. Prevalence is more in males and reproductive age group 16-45 years as 60% of patients fall into this group.

1/12/2020 11:19:51 AM +00:00

Evaluation of soybean lines for Edamame (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) as a potential vegetable for Telangana state of India

Edamame (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) also called vegetable soybean is an import vegetable and well recognized for health and nutritional benefits in the world. Soybean cultivars with large seed size and high sucrose content are desirable in the production of vegetable soybean, which is the food bean harvested at R6 stage and just before turning to yellow colour. However, the farmers in the state cultivating regular soybean for the past two decades but there is no suitable or improved vegetable soybean cultivars in the state of Telangana, India. In this study, 7 breeding lines were evaluated in replicated field trials for vegetable soybean green pod yield, 100 green seed weight, agronomic traits, cooking quality by sensory attributes and nutritional composition in Agricultural Research statation, Adilabad, Telangana state in 2018. For days to harvest at R6 stage VEG2 taken less days (62days), followed by VEG4 (63 days) and VEG7 taken 104 days to harvest at R6 stage. The trait green pod yield at harvest per plant has recorded maximum in case of genotype VEG 4 (7846 kg/ha) followed by VEG7 (7551 kg/ha). In case of 100 green seed weight, the highest mean was observed in VEG 2(75.0g) followed by VEG 4 (74.3g). The genotype VEG 4 is nutritionally equal to regular soybean and superior to other vegetables consumed in the state. Further it was well accepted as a vegetable curry by the panelists in terms of sensory attributes. Further this vegetable soybean may go as supplementary vegetable curry or food source for rural areas of Telangana for nutrition intervention programmes.

1/12/2020 11:19:39 AM +00:00

Influence of Azosprillum isolates on growth parameters of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Mexican single

Tuberose is important ornamental crop grown in large scale for its flowers. A pot culture experiment was carried out using five efficient isolates of Azospirillum on tuberose to evaluate the influence of these isolates on growth of tuberose, which revealed that treatments inoculated with isolate ATR-39 was significantly improved the growth of tuberose.

1/12/2020 11:19:18 AM +00:00

Effect of crop establishment and nutrient management on growth parameter and nutrient uptake in maize wheat system of northern plains of IGP

A field experiment was conducted 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University is situated in the South-East direction. The geographical situation of the farm lies at 2518N latitude and 8331E longitude at an altitude of 75.7 meters above the mean sea level in the Northern Gangetic Alluvial plains and soil textural class is sandy clay loam soil to study the effect of crop establishment method and nutrient management in maize wheat system. The experiment consisted of four crop establishment method [C1-Conventional/Farmers Practice (FP), C2- Improved over (FP), C3- Partial Conservation Agriculture (CA), C4- Full Conservation Agriculture (CA)] as main plot treatment and three nutrient management (N1 Farmer fertilize practice (FFP), N2 Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N3 Site specific nutrient management (SSNM) as sub plot treatment laid out in split plot design with three replication. Significant improvement in the growth character and nutrient uptake was observed with C4 as per crop growth stage and nutrient uptake which was at par with C3 treatment. Among nutrient management treatment (N3) resulted in higher growth parameter nutrient uptake which was at par with recommended dose of fertilizer (N2).

1/12/2020 11:19:05 AM +00:00