Tài liệu miễn phí Sinh học

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BRG1 interacts with GLI2 and binds Mef2c gene in a hedgehog signalling dependent manner during in vitro cardiomyogenesis

The Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway regulates cardiomyogenesis in vivo and in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell model. To further assess the transcriptional role of HH signalling during cardiomyogenesis in stem cells, we studied the effects of overexpressing GLI2, a primary transducer of the HH signalling pathway, in mES cells.

12/29/2020 5:24:54 PM +00:00

Efficient TALEN-mediated myostatin gene editing in goats

Myostatin (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that might have applications for promoting muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we aimed to test whether targeted MSTN editing, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), is a viable approach to create myostatin-modified goats (Capra hircus).

12/29/2020 5:24:46 PM +00:00

Salmonid fish: Model organisms to study cardiovascular morphogenesis in conjoined twins

There is a gap in knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system in fish conjoined twins, and regarding the cardiovascular morphogenesis of conjoined twins in general. We examined the cardiovascular system in a pair of fully developed ventrally conjoined salmonid twins (45.5 g body weight), and the arrangement of the blood vessels during early development in ventrally conjoined yolk sac larvae salmonid twins (

12/29/2020 5:24:38 PM +00:00

Relating proton pumps with gap junctions: colocalization of ductin, the channelforming subunit c of V-ATPase, with subunit a and with innexins 2 and 3 during Drosophila oogenesis

Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms.

12/29/2020 5:24:31 PM +00:00

MR microscopy of the human fetal upper extremity – a proof-of-principle study

Current knowledge of the human fetal and embryonic development relies on early descriptive studies of humans and from experimental studies of laboratory animals and embryos. Taking the upper extremity as an example, this study explores the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) for the assessment of the development of the fetal upper extremity and discusses its correlation with histological findings.

12/29/2020 5:24:22 PM +00:00

Light-sheet microscopy for everyone? Experience of building an OpenSPIM to study flatworm development

Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM a type of light-sheet microscopy) involves focusing a thin sheet of laser light through a specimen at right angles to the objective lens. As only the thin section of the specimen at the focal plane of the lens is illuminated, out of focus light is naturally absent and toxicity due to light (phototoxicity) is greatly reduced enabling longer term live imaging.

12/29/2020 5:24:15 PM +00:00

Adhesive organ regeneration in Macrostomum lignano

Flatworms possess pluripotent stem cells that can give rise to all cell types, which allows them to restore lost body parts after injury or amputation. This makes flatworms excellent model systems for studying regeneration.

12/29/2020 5:24:06 PM +00:00

Late stage definitive endodermal differentiation can be defined by Daf1 expression

Definitive endoderm (DE) gives rise to the respiratory apparatus and digestive tract. Sox17 and Cxcr4 are useful markers of the DE. Previously, we identified a novel DE marker, Decay accelerating factor 1(Daf1/CD55), by identifying DE specific genes from the expression profile of DE derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by microarray analysis, and in situ hybridization of early embryos.

12/29/2020 5:23:58 PM +00:00

Expression and knockdown of zebrafish folliculin suggests requirement for embryonic brain morphogenesis

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma.

12/29/2020 5:23:51 PM +00:00

β-catenin is required in the neural crest and mesencephalon for pituitary gland organogenesis

The pituitary gland is a highly vascularized tissue that requires coordinated interactions between the neural ectoderm, oral ectoderm, and head mesenchyme during development for proper physiological function. The interactions between the neural ectoderm and oral ectoderm, especially the role of the pituitary organizer in shaping the pituitary precursor, Rathke’s pouch, are well described.

12/29/2020 5:23:41 PM +00:00

Effects of Usag-1 and Bmp7 deficiencies on murine tooth morphogenesis

Wnt5a and Mrfzb1 genes are involved in the regulation of tooth size, and their expression levels are similar to that of Bmp7 during morphogenesis, including during the cap and early bell stages of tooth formation. We previously reported that Usag-1-deficient mice form supernumerary maxillary incisors.

12/29/2020 5:23:33 PM +00:00

Representation of anatomy in online atlases and databases: A survey and collection of patterns for interface design

A large number of online atlases and databases have been developed to mange the rapidly growing amount of data describing embryogenesis. As these community resources continue to evolve, it is important to understand how representations of anatomy can facilitate the sharing and integration of data. In addition, attention to the design of the interfaces is critical to make online resources useful and usable.

12/29/2020 5:23:24 PM +00:00

A critical role for the Drosophila dopamine D1-like receptor Dop1R2 at the onset of metamorphosis

Insect metamorphosis relies on temporal and spatial cues that are precisely controlled. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that untimely activation of genes that are essential to metamorphosis results in growth defects, developmental delay and death.

12/29/2020 5:23:17 PM +00:00

Mediator subunit Med12 contributes to the maintenance of neural stem cell identity

The RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit Med12 is broadly implicated in vertebrate brain development, and genetic variation in human MED12 is associated with X-linked intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric disorders.

12/29/2020 5:23:09 PM +00:00

Live imaging of muscle histolysis in Drosophila metamorphosis

The contribution of programmed cell death (PCD) to muscle wasting disorders remains a matter of debate. Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis offers the opportunity to study muscle cell death in the context of development. Using live cell imaging of the abdomen, two groups of larval muscles can be observed, doomed muscles that undergo histolysis and persistent muscles that are remodelled and survive into adulthood.

12/29/2020 5:22:59 PM +00:00

Co-culture with neonatal cardiomyocytes enhances the proliferation of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes via FAK/JNK signaling

We previously reported that the pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into cardiomyocytes (CMs) by co-culture with neonatal CMs (NCMs) in vitro. However, the involving mechanism is not clear.

12/29/2020 5:22:50 PM +00:00

Modular reorganization of the global network of gene regulatory interactions during perinatal human brain development

During early development of the nervous system, gene expression patterns are known to vary widely depending on the specific developmental trajectories of different structures. Observable changes in gene expression profiles throughout development are determined by an underlying network of precise regulatory interactions between individual genes.

12/29/2020 5:22:38 PM +00:00

PfSMAD4 plays a role in biomineralization and can transduce bone morphogenetic protein-2 signals in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

Mollusca is the second largest phylum in nature. The shell of molluscs is a remarkable example of a natural composite biomaterial. Biomineralization and how it affects mollusks is a popular research topic. The BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a canonical role in biomineralization.

12/29/2020 5:22:31 PM +00:00

Early development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Detailed descriptions of the early development of parasitic nematodes are seldom available. The embryonic development of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita was studied, focusing on the early events.

12/29/2020 5:22:22 PM +00:00

The combined effect of PDX1, epidermal growth factor and poly-L-ornithine on human amnion epithelial cells’ differentiation

It has been suggested that the ectopic expression of PDX1, a dominant pancreatic transcription factor, plays a critical role in the developmental programming of the pancreas even from cells of unrelated tissues such as keratinocytes and amniotic fluid stem cells.

12/29/2020 5:22:15 PM +00:00

The Akt signaling pathway is required for tissue maintenance and regeneration in planarians

Akt (PKB) is a serine threonine protein kinase downstream of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. In mammals, Akt is ubiquitously expressed and is associated with regulation of cellular proliferation, metabolism, cell growth and cell death. Akt has been widely studied for its central role in physiology and disease, in particular cancer where it has become an attractive pharmacological target.

12/29/2020 5:22:08 PM +00:00

Computational prediction and experimental validation of novel Hedgehog-responsive enhancers linked to genes of the Hedgehog pathway

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, acting through three homologous transcription factors (GLI1, GLI2, GLI3) in vertebrates, plays multiple roles in embryonic organ development and adult tissue homeostasis. At the level of the genome, GLI factors bind to specific motifs in enhancers, some of which are hundreds of kilobases removed from the gene promoter.

12/29/2020 5:22:01 PM +00:00

Long-term time-lapse live imaging reveals extensive cell migration during annelid regeneration

Time-lapse imaging has proven highly valuable for studying development, yielding data of much finer resolution than traditional “still-shot” studies and allowing direct examination of tissue and cell dynamics. A major challenge for time-lapse imaging of animals is keeping specimens immobile yet healthy for extended periods of time.

12/29/2020 5:21:53 PM +00:00

Apontic regulates somatic stem cell numbers in Drosophila testes

Microenvironments called niches maintain resident stem cell populations by balancing self-renewal with differentiation, but the genetic regulation of this process is unclear. The niche of the Drosophila testis is well-characterized and genetically tractable, making it ideal for investigating the molecular regulation of stem cell biology.

12/29/2020 5:21:44 PM +00:00

Differential requirement of bone morphogenetic protein receptors Ia (ALK3) and Ib (ALK6) in early embryonic patterning and neural crest development

Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate multiple processes in embryonic development, including early dorso-ventral patterning and neural crest development. BMPs activate heteromeric receptor complexes consisting of type I and type II receptor-serine/threonine kinases.

12/29/2020 5:21:37 PM +00:00

A co-culture assay of embryonic zebrafish hearts to assess migration of epicardial cells in vitro

The vertebrate heart consists of three cell layers: The innermost endothelium, the contractile myocardium and the outermost epicardium. The epicardium is vital for heart development and function, and forms from epicardial progenitor cells (EPCs), which migrate to the myocardium during early development

12/29/2020 5:21:30 PM +00:00

Identification of differential microRNA expression during tooth morphogenesis in the heterodont dentition of miniature pigs, SusScrofa

It has been found that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of tooth development, and most likely increase the complexity of the genetic network, thus lead to greater complexity of teeth. But there has been no research about the key microRNAs associated with tooth morphogenesis based on miRNAs expression profiles.

12/29/2020 5:21:22 PM +00:00

Cellular dynamics underlying regeneration of appropriate segment number during axolotl tail regeneration

Salamanders regenerate their tails after amputation anywhere along their length. How the system faithfully reconstitutes the original number of segments and length is not yet known.

12/29/2020 5:21:16 PM +00:00

Hsp90 and hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis

Biliary atresia (BA) is a human infant disease with inflammatory fibrous obstructions in the bile ducts and is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult.

12/29/2020 5:21:08 PM +00:00

Transcriptome profiling of bovine inner cell mass and trophectoderm derived from in vivo generated blastocysts

This study describes the generation and analysis of the transcriptional profile of bovine inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE), obtained from in vivo developed embryos by using a bovine-embryo specific array (EmbryoGENE) containing 37,238 probes.

12/29/2020 5:21:00 PM +00:00