Tài liệu miễn phí Sinh học
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Honeybee development consists of four stages: embryo, larva, pupa and adult. Embryogenesis, a key process of cell division and differentiation, takes 3 days in honeybees. However, the embryonic transcriptome and the dynamic regulation of embryonic transcription are still largely uncharacterized in honeybees, especially in the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana).
12/29/2020 5:29:09 PM +00:00
FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) have become the subject of considerable interest in several fields, leading to the identification of several cellular and molecular pathways in which FKBPs impact prenatal development and pathogenesis of many human diseases.
12/29/2020 5:29:01 PM +00:00
The experimental approach to the evolution and development of the vertebrate skeleton has to a large extent relied on “direct-developing” amniote model organisms, such as the mouse and the chicken.
12/29/2020 5:28:51 PM +00:00
Germ cell formation has been investigated in sessile forms of tunicates. This process involves the release of a subset of maternal transcripts from the centrosome-attracting body (CAB) in the progenitor cells of the germ line.
12/29/2020 5:28:44 PM +00:00
Tbx5 deficiency in zebrafish causes several abnormal phenotypes of the heart and pectoral fins. It has been reported that exogenous human growth hormone can enhance expression of downstream mediators in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) pathway and partially restore dysmorphogenesis in tbx5 morphants.
12/29/2020 5:28:35 PM +00:00
MiR-9 is a small non-coding RNA that is highly conserved between species and primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It is known to influence proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the brain and spinal cord of different vertebrates.
12/29/2020 5:28:18 PM +00:00
The Runt-related transcription factors (Runx) are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulators that play multiple roles in the developmental control of various cell types. Among the three mammalian Runx proteins, Runx1 is essential for definitive hematopoiesis and its dysfunction leads to human leukemogenesis.
12/29/2020 5:28:10 PM +00:00
The identification of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined.
12/29/2020 5:28:01 PM +00:00
Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in apoptosis and oocytes which have lower developmental competence show higher expression of Cathepsin B. Furthermore, expression of Cathepsin B show a decreasing trend from oocyte toward blastocyst stage.
12/29/2020 5:27:54 PM +00:00
Pluripotency defines the propensity of a cell to differentiate into, and generate, all somatic, as well as germ cells. The epiblast of the early mammalian embryo is the founder population of all germ layer derivatives and thus represents the bona fide in vivo pluripotent cell population.
12/29/2020 5:27:46 PM +00:00
The tauGFP reporter fusion protein is produced nearly ubiquitously by the TgTP6.3 transgene in TP6.3 mice and its localisation to microtubules offers some advantages over soluble GFP as a lineage marker. However, TgTP6.3Tg/Tg homozygotes are not viable and TgTP6.3Tg/− hemizygotes are smaller than wild-type.
12/29/2020 5:27:31 PM +00:00
Loss of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) results in multiple developmental anomalies including cardiac malformations, caudal regression, pre-sacral mass, renal agenesis, anteroposterior patterning defects, and tracheo-oesophageal and anorectal malformations, and is a model for VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndromes (VACTERL association - Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheoesophageal fistula and/or Esophageal atresia, Renal & Radial anomalies and Limb defects).
12/29/2020 5:27:22 PM +00:00
Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique embryonic cell type which give rise to a diverse array of derivatives extending from neurons and glia through to bone and cartilage. Depending on their point of origin along the antero-posterior axis cranial NCCs are rapidly sorted into distinct migratory streams that give rise to axial specific structures.
12/29/2020 5:27:15 PM +00:00
The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the unusual echinoderm pentameral body plan and their likeness to mechanisms underlying the development of the bilateral plans of other deuterostomes are of interest in tracing body plan evolution.
12/29/2020 5:27:06 PM +00:00
Many parasites regulate their development to synchronize their life cycle with a compatible host. The parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines displays incomplete host-mediated hatching behavior wherein some H. glycines individuals hatch only in the presence of a host-derived cue while others hatch in water alone.
12/29/2020 5:26:59 PM +00:00
Thus far, a handful of genes have been shown to be related to the wing maturation process in insects. A novel heme peroxidase enzyme known as curly suppressor (Cysu)(formerly CG5873), have been characterized in this report because it is involved in wing morphogenesis.
12/29/2020 5:26:52 PM +00:00
An increase in the activity of the pituitary-gonad axis (PG-axis) and gonad development are essential for the onset of spawning migration in teleosts. In the fish Coilia nasus, gonad development and spawning migration up the Yangtze River occurs by the end of each summer.
12/29/2020 5:26:45 PM +00:00
Establishment of the left-right axis is important for positioning organs asymmetrically in the developing vertebrate-embryo. A number of factors like maternally deposited molecules have emerged essential in initiating the specification of the axis; the downstream events, however, are regulated by signal-transduction and gene-expression changes identifying which remains a crucial challenge.
12/29/2020 5:26:38 PM +00:00
Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking.
12/29/2020 5:26:31 PM +00:00
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified to play important roles in epigenetic processes that underpin organogenesis. However, the role of LncRNAs in the regulation of transition from fetal to adult life of human heart has not been evaluated.
12/29/2020 5:26:23 PM +00:00
Because ribosomes are ubiquitously required for protein production, it was long assumed that any inherited defect in ribosome manufacture would be embryonically lethal. However, several human congenital diseases have been found to be associated with mutations in ribosome biogenesis factors.
12/29/2020 5:26:14 PM +00:00
Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components.
12/29/2020 5:26:07 PM +00:00
Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology.
12/29/2020 5:25:59 PM +00:00
Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development, inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer. The 65 kDa RelA subunit is the major transcriptional activator of the NF-kB pathways.
12/29/2020 5:25:51 PM +00:00
The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types.
12/29/2020 5:25:40 PM +00:00
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent.
12/29/2020 5:25:31 PM +00:00
HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. It has been shown that one of the targets of HACE1 is the GTP-bound form of the small GTPase Rac1. However, the role of HACE1 in early development remains unknown.
12/29/2020 5:25:24 PM +00:00
Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open.
12/29/2020 5:25:17 PM +00:00
Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes across phyla.
12/29/2020 5:25:10 PM +00:00
Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis.
12/29/2020 5:25:01 PM +00:00