Tài liệu miễn phí Sinh học
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Dietary interventions during pregnancy alter offspring fitness. We have shown mouse maternal low protein diet fed exclusively for the preimplantation period (Emb-LPD) before return to normal protein diet (NPD) for the rest of gestation, is sufficient to cause adult offspring cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
12/29/2020 6:28:24 PM +00:00
Bioelectric phenomena have been found to exert influence on various developmental and regenerative processes. Little is known about their possible functions and the cellular mechanisms by which they might act during Drosophila oogenesis.
12/29/2020 6:28:16 PM +00:00
Zebrafish are able to regenerate many of its tissues and organs after damage. In amphibians this process is regulated by nerve fibres present at the site of injury, which have been proposed to release factors into the amputated limbs/fins, promoting and sustaining the proliferation of blastemal cells.
12/29/2020 6:28:04 PM +00:00
Mapping of tissue structure at the cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale is important for understanding physiological and biological functions. A bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY used for three-dimensional anatomical and phenotypical mapping within transparent intact tissues has been recently developed.
12/29/2020 6:27:55 PM +00:00
Identification and characterization of molecular controls that regulate mammary stem and progenitor cell homeostasis are critical to our understanding of normal mammary gland development and its pathology.
12/29/2020 6:27:48 PM +00:00
: In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. T
12/29/2020 6:27:37 PM +00:00
Efforts to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of regeneration have required the application of methods to detect specific cell types and tissues in a growing cohort of experimental animal models. For example, in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, substantial improvements to nucleic acid hybridization and electron microscopy protocols have facilitated the visualization of regenerative events at the cellular level.
12/29/2020 6:27:25 PM +00:00
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway has been implicated in functions of multicellular processes, including cell growth and metabolism. Although recent reports showed that many signaling pathways, including Activin, Bmp, Fgf, sonic hedgehog, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF), Notch, retinoic acid, and Wnt, are implicated in non-mammalian vertebrate regeneration, also known as epimorphic regeneration, mTORC1 function remains unknown.
12/29/2020 6:27:16 PM +00:00
The sub-cortical maternal complex (SCMC), located in the subcortex of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos, is composed of at least four proteins encoded by maternal effect genes: OOEP, NLRP5/ MATER, TLE6 and KHDC3/FILIA.
12/29/2020 6:27:08 PM +00:00
Hundreds of HSP40s derived from various species have been identified, of which several proteins are involved in spermatogenesis. DNAJB13 is a type II HSP40/DnaJ protein. In a previous study, we cloned mouse Dnajb13, which is up-regulated in cryptorchidism.
12/29/2020 6:27:01 PM +00:00
The switch from cartilage template to bone during endochondral ossification of the growth plate requires a dynamic and close interaction between cartilage and the developing vasculature. Vascular invasion of the primarily avascular hypertrophic chondrocyte zone brings chondroclasts, osteoblast- and endothelial precursor cells into future centres of ossification.
12/29/2020 6:26:53 PM +00:00
Glandular organs require the development of a correctly patterned epithelial tree. These arise by iterative branching: early branches have a stereotyped anatomy, while subsequent branching is more flexible, branches spacing out to avoid entanglement.
12/29/2020 6:26:46 PM +00:00
The Drosophila larval head is evolutionarily derived at the genetic and morphological level. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, development of the larval head more closely resembles the ancestral arthropod condition.
12/29/2020 6:26:30 PM +00:00
Hox genes, with their similar roles in animals as evolutionarily distant as humans and flies, have fascinated biologists since their discovery nearly 30 years ago. During the last two decades, reports on Hox genes from a still growing number of eumetazoan species have increased our knowledge on the Hox gene contents of a wide range of animal groups.
12/29/2020 6:26:22 PM +00:00
Mosquito eggshells show remarkable diversity in physical properties and structure consistent with adaptations to the wide variety of environments exploited by these insects. We applied proteomic, transcriptomic, and hybridization in situ techniques to identify gene products and pathways that participate in the assembly of the Aedes aegypti eggshell.
12/29/2020 6:26:15 PM +00:00
Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family is classified as class IVa of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP4A) that removes phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins. PRL phosphatases have been implicated in a number of tumorigenesis and metastasis processes and are highly conserved.
12/29/2020 6:26:05 PM +00:00
The multicellular slug in Dictyostelium has a single tip that acts as an organising centre patterning the rest of the slug. High adenosine levels at the tip are believed to be responsible for this tip dominance and the adenosine antagonist, caffeine overrides this dominance promoting multiple tip formation.
12/29/2020 6:25:57 PM +00:00
The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has long been the focus of developmental and ecological studies, and its recently-sequenced genome has spawned a diversity of functional genomics approaches. S. purpuratus has an indirect developmental mode with a pluteus larva that transforms after 1–3 months in the plankton into a juvenile urchin.
12/29/2020 6:25:50 PM +00:00
The homeodomain transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of neuronal fates. In vertebrates, Otp is necessary for the proper development of different regions of the brain and is required in the diencephalon to specify several hypothalamic cell types, including the cells that control the stress response.
12/29/2020 6:25:42 PM +00:00
Regulation of organ and body size is a fundamental biological phenomenon, requiring tight coordination between multiple tissues to ensure accurate proportional growth. In C. elegans, a TGF-β pathway is the major regulator of body size and also plays a role in the development of the male tail, and is thus referred to as the TGF-β/Sma/Mab (for small and male abnormal) pathway.
12/29/2020 6:25:34 PM +00:00
The development of the craniofacial skeleton from embryonic mesenchyme is a complex process that is not yet completely understood, particularly for intramembranous bones. This study investigates the development of the neural crest derived infraorbital (IO) bones of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) skull.
12/29/2020 6:25:25 PM +00:00
To gain insight into what differences might restrict the capacity for limb regeneration in Xenopus froglets, we used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/double mass spectrometry to characterize protein expression during fibroblastema formation in the amputated froglet hindlimb, and compared the results to those obtained previously for blastema formation in the axolotl limb.
12/29/2020 6:25:18 PM +00:00
Morphometric quantification of subtle craniofacial variation in studies of experimentally modified embryonic mice has proved valuable in determining the effects of developmental perturbations on craniofacial morphogenesis.
12/29/2020 6:25:11 PM +00:00
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in glial cell development and in disease states within multiple regions of the central nervous system. However, little is known about HDAC expression or function within the optic nerve.
12/29/2020 6:25:00 PM +00:00
Cells in some tissues acquire a polarisation in the plane of the tissue in addition to apical-basal polarity. This polarisation is commonly known as planar cell polarity and has been found to be important in developmental processes, as planar polarity is required to define the in-plane tissue coordinate system at the cellular level.
12/29/2020 6:24:52 PM +00:00
The purpose of the study was an evaluation of fetal hip joint morphology during the second and the third trimester of pregnancy. Serial sections were performed on 23 cadaver infants. Results: The mean lunar age was 6.6 months. Femoral shaft length (FSL) and width of the proximal and distal epiphysis were x-rayed to determine fetal age.
12/29/2020 6:24:45 PM +00:00
Molecular studies of appendage regeneration have been hindered by the lack of a stable and efficient means of transferring exogenous genes. We therefore sought an efficient integrating virus system that could be used to study limb and tail regeneration in salamanders.
12/29/2020 6:24:37 PM +00:00
Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) belongs to the novel PKC subfamily, which consists of diacylglycerol dependent- and calcium independent-PKCs. Previous studies have shown that PKCε is important in different contexts, such as wound healing or cancer.
12/29/2020 6:24:29 PM +00:00
The phoronid larva, which is called the actinotrocha, is one of the most remarkable planktotrophic larval types among marine invertebrates. Actinotrochs live in plankton for relatively long periods and undergo catastrophic metamorphosis, in which some parts of the larval body are consumed by the juvenile.
12/29/2020 6:24:06 PM +00:00
MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating biological processes, including organ morphogenesis and maturation. However, little is known about specific pathways regulated by miRNA during lung development. Between the canalicular and saccular stages of the developing lung several important cellular events occur, including the onset of surfactant synthesis, microvascular remodeling and structural preparation for subsequent alveolarization.
12/29/2020 6:24:00 PM +00:00