Vocabulary for TOEFL® iBT
Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC.
All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Pub-lished in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT.
1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization)
PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22
Printed in the United States of America
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1 About TOEFL iBT 1 2 Vocabulary in Context 12 3 Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes 31 4 Word Roots 45 5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms 61 6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations 74
Practice Test 1 81
Practice Test 2 99
Appendix A: Word List 117
Appendix B: Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots 174
veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary, a listening vocabulary, and a speaking vocabulary. You’ve read words you have never heard, and heard words you’ve never read. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. As you explore the vocabulary in this book, think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring, and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. With practice, though, you can
learn to take unknown words in stride. Here’s how to start.
1. Start small. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. There are several tech-niques for breaking sentences into smaller units. One way you can do this is to ﬁnd a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and grad-ually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done.
You can also use trial and error to ﬁnd islands of meaning in a sentence. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one, you will eventually see how they ﬁt together; and then you will under-stand the dynamics of the whole sentence.
2. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem, look at the words around it. Usually you can ﬁgure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. If so, it’s a verb. Is it describing some-thing? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. Is it the subject—the person, place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word.
3. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know, it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. The words something and whatever work well