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  1. PGS,TS. Lfi QUY Dirc (chii bien) VAI TRO CUA VAN HOA TRONG SI/ NGHIEP CONG NGHIEP HOA - HIEN DAI HOA NONG THON, NONG NGHIEP VUNG DONG BANG SONG HONG THl/VIEN Tl'iVHBiNMTHUAN NXB VAN HOA - THONG TIN & VIEN VAN HOA HA Npl - 2005
  2. up l r . c Loi noi dau Day manh cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat ntfdc, xay dtfng n^n kinh t^' doc lap tu" chu, dua dat nif6c ta trd thanh mot nUdc cong nghiep, u u tien phat tri^n luc ludng san xuat, dong thdi xay dung quan h ^ san xuat phu hdp theo dinh hudng xa hoi chu nghia; phat huy cao do noi luc, ddng thdi tranh thii ngu6n luc ttf ben ngoai va chu dong hoi nhap kinh te d^' phat triSn nhanh; c6 hieu qua va b^n viing, tang trucfng kinh te d i lien v 6 i phat trien van hoa, tung budc cai thien d d i song vat chat va tinh thdn cua nhan dan, thuc hien tien bo va cong bang xa h6i; bao ve va cai thien moi trudng; ket hdp phat trien kinh te v 6 i quoc phong va an ninh. ' Tren day la dudng loi doi m6i, cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat nude cua Dang Cong san Viet Nam hay CO the quan niem la hoc thuyet ve phat trien cua Dang Cong san Viet Nam theo dinh hudng xa hoi chu nghra. Trong hoc thuyet phat trien ay. Dang Cong san 5
  3. Viet Nam nhan thay vai tro het sifc to 16n cua van Chung toi chon v i m g dong bang B5c Bo (thuc hoa: van hoa la nen tang tinh th^n cua xa hoi, vua la chat la viing ddng bSng song Hong) lam doi tudng muc tieu, vua la dong life thiic day su phat trien kinh nghien cuu v i may le sau: dong bSng song Hong nam te-xahoi. v , A t ^ ^^^^ ^i^. » trong vung trong diem kinh te B3c Bo - mot vung Doi v 6 i nude ta cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa tu" trong yeu cua dat nude, vung c6 truyen thong van hoa mot nuoc nong nghiep lac hau thi vai tro cua van hoa dac s§c va tieu bieu cua dan toe. lai cang quan trong (thuc chat cong nghiep hoa, hien Cling cin noi them r i n g : dai hoa dat nuoc la cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa - Vung chau thd song H6ng la vung chiem phSn nong thon, nong nghiep). Do vay, c^n phai nghien cuu 16n khong gian dia ly cua dong bSng Bac Bo. Cho nen, vai tro cua van hoa trong qua h-inh cong nghiep hoa, khi noi dong bang BSc Bo thi cai goi la "dong bSng" hien dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep va quan trong cua BSc Bo chinh la vung chau thd song Hong. hdn la tim ra cac giai phap de phat huy vai tro "nen tang tinh than cua xa hoi", "vua la muc tieu, vua la - Gin day Van kien cua Dang va Nha nudc dong luc thuc day su phat trien kinh te - xa hoi" cua (dudng loi, chinh sach, van ban thong ke, sach giao van hoa d vung nong thon, nong nghiep n h u the nao? khoa nha tru-dng) deu tach rieng vung dong bang song Hong thanh mot khu vuc rieng. C h i n g han trong De giai dap van de nay, cuon sach da dudc "Chien lu-dc phat trien kinh te' - xa hoi 2001 - 2020" nghien cuu vt'^i hai muc tieu sau: dUdc Dai hoi Dang l l n thu IX thong qua c6 dinh - Nghien cuu vai tro cua v3n hoa trong qua trinh hudng phat trien "dong bSng song Hdng va vung cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa d nong thon vung dong h-ong diem kinh te BSc Bo" (Van kien Dai hoi Dai bieu bang B3c Bo (dong bSng song Hong). toan quoc cua Dang l^n thii IX, trang 182). - De xuat iihifng giai phap de phat huy vai tro Cu6n sach gom 3 noi dung nghien cmi cd ban sau: cua van hoa trong su nghiep cong nghiep hoa, hien dai 1. Van de vai tro cua van hoa v6i sif nghiep cong hoa d vung dong bang song Hong. nghiep hoa, hidn dai hoa dat nude va cong nghiep hoa. 6 7
  4. hien dai hoa n6ng thon, nong nghiep nxidc ta noi •nil chung va viing dong bSng song Hong noi rieng. 2. ThxXc trang van hoa trong ndng thon, nong nghiep v u n g dong b3ng song H6ng tru-dc thdi ky day Chuongl manh c6ng nghiep hoa, hi§n dai hoa dat nu-dc. Nong thon nong nghiep nadc ta va 3. Cac giai phap phat huy vai tro cua van hoa dong b5ng song Hong trong qua trinh trong qua trinh cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa ndng cong nghiep hoa, hien dqi hoa thdn, nong nghiep vung dong bSng s6ng H6ng. Mac d u tap the tac gia da c6 nhieu cd' gSng, tuy vay cong trinh cung khong tranh khoi nhiing han che, thieu sot nhat dinh, chung toi mong nhan dtfdc sxx I. Nhihig van de chung ve cong nghiep hoa, hien dai dong gop cua dong dao ban doc. hoa dat nndc va nong thon, nong nghiep nu6c ta 1.1. Muc tieu cong nghiep hoa, hien dqi hoa "-• '• •••• ' dat nicdc Hoi nghi giQa nhiem ky khoa V I I cua Dang da neu van de cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa trong qua trinh doi m6i "dita dat niidc chuyen sang mot thdi ky phdt trim mdi, thdi ky day tdi mot hiidc siC nghiep cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa ddt niidc". Tren cd sd nhQng tien de chinh tri, kinh te, vat chat da dUdc tao ra "bao gom mot loat nhan to cd the vd lUc, cd vat chat vd tinh than, ve kinh te, chinh tri, xd hoi, van hoa trong vd ngodi nUdc"^^ Van kien H6i nghi dai bieu toan quoc giua nhiem ky khoa V I I , Nxb C I Q G , H. 1994,tr.22. 9
  5. D a i hoi Ian thijt V I I I cua Dang (6/1996) da khang hien dai. Nguon lUc con ngifdi, nang liJc khoa hoc va dinh muc tieu, nhiem vu " t r u n g tarn" cua dat nxidc ta cong nghe, ket cau ha tang, tiem liic k i n h te, quoc phong, trong giai doan tdi la day manh cong nghiep hoa, hien an n i n h difdc tang ciidng; the che k i n h te t h i triidng dinh dai hoa dat nxidc. D a i hoi Ian t h i i I X khang dinh l a i va hxidng xa hoi chu nghia diidc h i n h t h a n h ve cd ban; v i nhan m a n h quyet tarn cua toan Dang, toan dan thvfc the cua nifdc ta tren t h i triidng quoc te difdc nang cao. hien nhiem v u to 16n ay: "Xudt phdt ti£ tinh hinh hien Den nam 2010, tong san pham trong nxidc GDP tarig i t nay vd yeu cdu phdt trien dat nitdc trong thai ky mdi, nhat gap doi so v6i nam 2000; chuyen dich cd cau k i n h te di/dng loi kinh te cua Ddng ta ditac xdc dinh Id: Day va cd cau lao dong, giam ty le lao dong nong nghiep manh cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa, xdy diing nen kinh xuong con khoang 50%. te doc lap tU chu, dUa dat nildc ta trd thdnh mot ni/dc 1.2. Nhitng dac trUng cua cong nghiep hoa, cong nghiep; itu tien phdt trien lUc li/cfng sdn xuat, dong thai xdy dUng quan he sdn xudt phu hap theo dinh hii&ng hien dai hoa d nildc ta trong giai doan hien nay xd hoi chu nghla; phdt huy cao do noi lUc, dong thai Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa hien nay la cong tranh thu nguon lUc ben ngodi vd chu dong hoi nhdp nghiep hoa hien dai hoa hii6ng t6i xay diing t h a n h cong kinh te de phdt trien nhanh; c6 hieu qud vd ben vitng; chu nghia xa hoi d nxidc ta v i muc tieu "ddn gidu, niCdc tang trUang kinh te di lien vdi phdt trien van hoa, tiing manh, xd hoi cong bang, ddn chu vd van minh". Chung budc cdi thien ddi song vdt chat vd tinh than cua nhdn ta phai thiic hien muc tieu kep: vCfa phat trien k i n h te ddn, thitc hien tien bo vd cong bang xd hoi, bdo ve vd cdi t h i triidng vCfa dam bao cong bang xa hoi, vvLa. khuyen thien mdi trUdng; ket hap phdt trien kinh te vdi qudc khich lam giau, vtfa phai xoa doi giam ngheo, lam cho phbng vd an ninh"^^\ "bdn chat Uu viet cua che do mdi" diidc thxic hien trong qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat nifdc. "Cong Muc tieu cua chien lifdc phat trien k i n h te - xa hoi nghiep hoa hien dai hoa tao ra nhiJtng dieu kien can thiet trong giai doan triJdc mat la: Diia niidc ta ra khoi t i n h ve vat chat ky thudt, ve con ngi/di vd khoa hoc cong nghe trang kem phat trien, nang cao ro ret ddi song vat chat thiic day chuyen dich cd cdu kinh te nhdm huy dong vd t i n h t h a n cua nhan dan, tao nen tang de den nam 2020 sic dung CO hieu qud cdc nguon lUc, khong ngiing tang nu6c ta cd ban t r d t h a n h nifdc cong nghiep theo hu6ng ndng sudt lao dong, lam cho nen kinh te tang triCOng nhanh vd ben viing, ndng cao dai song vat chat vd van ' " V a n kien Dai hoi dai bie'u toaii qudc lan thCr DC. Nxb CTQG. H. 2001, tr. 23-24. 10 ii
  6. N h u vay, cong nghiep hoa hien dai hoa nong nghiep, hoa cua nhdn dan, thiCc hien cong bang vd tien bo xd hoi, nong thon viia la muc tieu, viia la nhiem vu tnidc mat bdo ue vd cdi thien moi triCdng sinh thdi"^'' ciia qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat nii6c. Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nxidc ta trong dieu Muc tieu nhiem vu do xuat phat tu: dac diem khach quan kien mot nii6c nong nghiep lac hau, phan 16n dan cxi cua dat nifdc va ttf vai tro cua nong thon, nong nghiep song d vung nong thon (gan 80%), binh quan ruong dat nifdc ta trong qua t r i n h lich sii dUng niidc va giii nii6c cua thap va t h u nhap til. nong nghiep r a t thap. N g h i quyet dan toe va svf nghiep xay diing dat nii6c hien nay. Hoi nghi t r u n g xiOng Ian t h i i 7 khoa V I I da chi ra: "Doi Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong nghiep, nong vdi nildc ta, do Id qud trinh thiCc hien chien litdc phdt thon la van de c6 y nghia chien lifdc trong sU nghiep doi trien kinh te • nhdm cdi bien mot xd hoi nong nghiep lac m6i dat ml6c theo dinh hii6ng xa hoi chu nghia. Nong hau thdnh mot xd hoi cong nghiep, gan vdi viec hinh nghiep, nong thon va nong dan nifdc ta c6 vai tro to Idn thdnh titng biidc quan he sdn xudt tien bo, ngdy cdng the trong sd nghiep each mang cua Dang, cua dan toe triidc hien day du hem bdn chat iCu viet cua chedo mdi"^'^ day va hien nay. K i n h nghiem thanh cong va that bai Do do, cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat niidc can ciia cae niidc dang phat trien eho thay neu khong giai coi trong cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong thon, nong quyet tot van de nong thon, nong nghiep t h i khong the c6 nghiep nhif mot nhiem v u trong t a m trUdc mat. "Trong svf tang trifdng va phat trien ben viing k i n h te - xa hoi. nhUng ndm triCdc mdt, khd ndng von con c6 han, nhu cdu Bai hoc nhi3ng nam gan day d nifdc ta dien ra t a i mot so cong dn viec Idm rat bi2c bdch, ddi song nhdn dan con t i n h dong bang song Hong (Thai Binh, Nam Dinh...) cang nhieu khd khdn, tinh hinh kinh te chiia that on dinh chi ro van de nong thon, nong nghiep c6 y nghia nhii the vUng chdc, can tap trung nd lUc day manh cong nghiep nao doi v6i qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat hoa nong nghiep nong thon, ra srJtc phdt trien ngdnh che nifdc vi muc tieu "dan gidu, nUdc manh, xd hoi cdng bien nong - Idm - thuy sdn, cong nghiep tieu dicng vd bang, dan chu vd van minh" ma chung ta dat ra. xudt nhap khdu, cdc ngdnh du lich, dich vu... cd thdnh thi vd nong thon. Khoi phuc, phdt trien, tiCng biidc hien 1.3. Noi dung ca bdn ciia cong nghiep hoa, dai hoa cdc ngdnh nghi thu cong truyen thong cd thi hien dai hoa nong nghiep nong thon trubng tieu thu Idn trong vd ngodi nitdc"^^ Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong nghiep, nong thon la qua t r i n h tao lap cd sd vat chat - ky t h u a t va cd " ' " " " V a n k i e n H o i nghi T W 7 k h o a V I I . Sdd. 12 13
  7. cau k i n h te de p h a t t r i e n s a n x u a t n o n g n g h i e p , c h u y e n t r i e n n e n n o n g n g h i e p s i n h t h a i v a tao n e n bo m a t n o n g d i c h ccf c a u k i n h te - x a h o i n o n g t h o n t h e o h t f d n g cong t h o n m d i , "do t h i h o a " ngay d v u n g n o n g t h o n n g h i e p hoa, g a n n o n g n g h i e p v d i cong n g h i e p , d i c h v u , - Cac g i a i p h a p cong n g h i e p hoa, h i e n d a i hoa v u n g cho p h e p p h a t h u y c6 h i e u q u a m o i I d i t h e cua n e n n o n g n o n g t h o n , n o n g n g h i e p d nxidc t a : n g h i e p n h i e t ddi t r o n g s\l m d r o n g giao l i i u , h o i n h a p quoc te. C o n g n g h i e p hoa, h i e n d a i hoa n o n g n g h i e p , Dvfdng l o i v a c h i e n lifdc p h a t t r i e n k i n h te- x a h o i n o n g t h o n nifdc t a bao g o m cac n o i d u n g s a u : cua d a t n\idc, diidc D a i h o i d a i b i e u t o a n quoc c u a D a n g I a n t h i l I X c h i ro: "Tang ciidng sU chi dao va phat huy - D a y m a n h x a y d i i n g cd sd v a t c h a t - k y t h u a t , dUa cac nguon lUc cau thanh de day nhanh cong nghiep hoa, t r e n nhuEng t h a n h t i i u cua cuoc each m a n g k h o a hoc cong Men dai hoa nong nghiep va nong thon. Tiep tuc phat nghe, n h a t l a cong n g h e s i n h hoc, cong nghe che b i e n trien dUa nong nghiep, Idm nghiep, ngU nghiep len mot bao q u a n n o n g s a n de c h u y e n d i c h cd c a u k i n h te n o n g trinh do mdi bang iCng dung tien bo khoa hoc va cong n g h i e p , n o n g t h o n theo d i n h h i f d n g cong n g h i e p hoa, nghe, nhat la cong nghe sinh hoc; day manh thuy lai h i e n d a i hoa, t a o r a k h o i l i i d n g n o n g s a n h a n g hoa I d n c6 hoa, ccf gidi hoa, hien dai hoa, qui hoach sit dung dat g i a t r i x u a t k h a u cao. hdp ly; doi mdi ccf cau cay trong, vat nuoi, tang gid tri - D a y m a n h x a y d i i n g ke't c a u h a t a n g k i n h te - k y thu dicac tren dOn vi dien tich; gidi quyet tot van de tieu t h u a t v a k i n h te xa h o i cho viec p h a t t r i e n n o n g n g h i e p , thu nong san hang hoa. Dau tii nhieu hcfn cho ke't cau n o n g t h o n theo h u d n g cong n g h i e p hoa, h i e n d a i hoa, ha tang kinh te va xd hoi d nong thon. Phdt trien cong d i e n , dUdng, t r i f d n g , t r a m . . . V a cac b o a t d o n g d i c h v u nghiep, dich vu, cdc nganh nghe da dang, chu trong c u n g l i n g cac y e u to' " d a u r a " cho s a n x u a t n o n g n g h i e p . cong nghiep che bien, ca khi phuc vu nong nghiep, cdc - T h i i c h i e n p h a n cong m d i lao d o n g x a h o i t r o n g lang nghe, chuyen doi bo phan quan trong lao dong n o n g n g h i e p , n o n g t h o n t r e n cd sd p h a t t r i e n cac n g a n h nong nghiep sang khu viCc cong nghiep va dich vu, tao n g h e t h u cong n g h i e p , cac l a n g n g h e t r u y e n t h o n g v a nhieu viec Idm mdi; ndng cao chat liCmg nguon nhdn d i c h v u theo p h i f d n g c h a m " r d i d o n g k h o n g r d i l a n g " , liCc; cdi thien ddi song nong ddn vd ddn cU d nong " t i e u cong n g h i e p h i e n d a i , t h u cong n g h i e p t i n h xao". thdn"''Tijfng hxidc xac l a p cd cau k i n h te n o n g n g h i e p - cong n g h i e p - d i c h v u t r e n d i a b a n n o n g t h o n , t h i i c day p h a t " Van kien Dai hoi dai bi^u loan quoc l i n thii I X . Sdd. Trang 92-92. 14 15
  8. Thilc hien N g h i quyet D a i hoi IX, Hoi nghi Ian t h i i * 6. NhQng quan diem chinh day nhanh cong nghiep 5 B a n Chap h a n h T r u n g Ucfng khoa I X da ra N g h i quyet hoa, hien dai hoa nong nghiep, nong thon trong giai - ve: "Day n h a n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong doan tdi. ^ o n o nghiep, nong t h o n thdi ky 2000 - 2010", vdi cac noi dung M o t la, "Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong nghiep va quan diem cd ban sau: nong thon la mot trong nhiJng nhiem v u quan trong a. Ngi dung tong qudt cua cong nghiep hoa, hien hang dau ciia cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa dat nxidc. dai hoa nong nghiep nong thon. Phat t r i e n cong nghiep, dich v u phai gfin bo chat che, ho 1) . "Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong nghiep la t r d dac lUc va phuc v u c6 hieu qua cho cong nghiep hoa, qua t r i n h chuyen dich cd cau k i n h te nong nghiep theo hien dai hoa nong nghiep, nong thon". hifdng san x u a t hang hoa 16n, gan vdi cong nghiep che H a i la, " U u tien phat t r i e n liic liidng san xuat, chu bien va t h i trifdng, thiic hien cd k h i hoa, t h u y Idi hoa, trong phat huy nguon \\ic con ngiidi, iing dung rong r a i ling dung cac t h a n h ttfu khoa hoc, cong nghe, trifdc het t h a n h t\iu khoa hoc cong nghe, thiic day chuyen dich cd la cong nghe sinh hoc, diia thiet b i , ky t h u a t va cong cau k i n h te theo hudng phat huy Idi the cua tCfng vung, nghe hien dai vao cac k h a u san xuat nong nghiep nham gAn vdi t h i triidng de san x u a t hang hoa quy mo Idn vdi nang cao nang suat, chat liidng, hieu qua, sijfc canh chat liidng va hieu qua cao...". t r a n h ciia nong san hang hoa t r e n t h i trvfdng". Ba la, "Diia vao noi Ivfc la chinh, dong thdi tranh 2) . "Cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong thon la qua t h u toi da cac nguon luc tH ben ngoai, phat huy t i e m t r i n h chuyen dich cd cau k i n h te nong thon theo hifdng nang cua cac t h a n h phan k i n h te, trong do k i n h te nha tang n h a n h t y trong gia t r i san pham va lao dong cac nifdc gia vai tro chii dao, cung vcii kinh te tap the ngay nganh cong nghiep, dich v u , giam dan ty trong san pham cang t r d t h a n h nen tang viing chac; phat trien manh me va lao dong nong nghiep, xay dUng ket cau ha tang k i n h k i n h te ho san xuat hang hoa, cac loai h i n h doanh te - xa hoi, quy hoach phat t r i e n nong thon, bao ve moi nghiep, nhat la doanh nghiep nho va vifa d nong thon". trifdng sinh t h a i , to chiic l a i san xuat va xay dUng quan he san xuat p h i i hdp, xay dvfng nong thon dan chu, cong Bon la, "Ket hdp chat che cac van de k i n h te va xa bang, van m i n h , khong ngifng nang cao ddi song vat chat hoi trong qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong va van hoa ciia nhan dan d nong thon". nghiep, nong thon n h a m giai quyet viec lam, x6a doi, iriU yitiN TIA;.HBINH THU.AN 16 17
  9. giam ngheo, on d i n h xa hoi va phat trien k i n h te, nang khoang 1/ 2 so v6i t y le tang chung). M a t do dan so' dong cao ddi song vat chat va van hoa cua ngUdi dan nong d&n t d i dien tich dat nong nghiep chia theo ho cua k h u vtfc thon, n h a t la vung dong bao cac dan toe thieu so', vung nong thon dong bang song Hong rat thap. Dat nong nghiep sau, v u n g xa...". binh quan dau ngUdi la 577 m^ va con so'nay c6 nguy cd tiep tuc giam trong nhiing nam tdi. Co nhiJng vung n h i i Ha Noi, Cac nguon liic can thiet de day nhanh cong nghiep Hai Dudng, Thai Binh... ty ^e nay thap hdn miic binh quan hoa, hien dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep deu g&n vdi cua vung rat nhieu (Ha Noi: 355 mVngifdi, Hai DUdng: 455 van hoa: txi khoa hoc cong nghe, chuyen doi cd cau san m^ / ngUdi, Thai Binh: 506m'/ ngUdi). xuat, cay trong vat nuoi, phat huy nganh nghe t r u y e n thong, md mang nganh nghe m6i... den nang cao chat Dong bang song Hong la vung duy n h a t khong c6' liidng nguon nhan liic, cai t h i e n ddi song n h a n dan v.v.... ho nong nghiep nao c6 dien tich dat t r e n 3 ha; chiem V a n de phat huy cac nguon Itfc n h u the nao? trong do c6 mot t y le 16n la so'ho c6 dien tich dat dudi 0,5 ha. Trong nguon lUc van hoa la van de dat ra do'i v6i de t a i : "Vai k h i dan so' tiep tuc t a n g t h i dien tich dat l a i khong trd cua van hoa trong qua trinh cong nghiep hoa, tang. Them vao do, mot dien tich dat nong nghiep hien dai hoa nong thon nong nghiep vung dong chuyen doi muc tieu s\l dung, dUdc dUa sang phuc v u bang song Hong" ma chung t o i nghien ciiu. cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa, do t h i hoa. Dieu nay d i n t6i mot he qua la dien tich dat canh tac cua cac ho nong I I . V a n de cong n g h i e p h o a , h i e n d a i h o a n o n g nghiep, nong thon dong bang song Hong ngay cang t h o n , n o n g n g h i e p dong b a n g song H o n g giam xuo'ng. K h u viic nong thon dong song Hong c6 hai he thong K h u vt(c dong b l n g song Hong c6 dien tich tU nhien song chinh la song Hong va song T h a i B i n h . H a i he la 16.654 k m ^ dan so la: 14.748000 ngifdi. Trong do nong thong song nay la nguon cung cap phii sa, nifdc tifdi tieu, thon dong b^ng song Hong chiem khoang 56,12% dien tao nen mot trong hai viia lua 16n nhat cua ca nUdc. tich toan vung, dan so'xap x i 78,5% dan so'toan vung. Tong chieu dai de song cua k h u vUc khoang 3000 k m , de M a t do dan so cua k h u vUc dong bang song Hong bien khoang 1.500 k m . cao nhat, gap nhieu Ian so vdi cac vung trong ca nif6c, Cuoi nhiJng nam 80, dau nhQng nam 90 cua the k y (du ty le tang dan so' hang nam khong cao, chi vao XX, Dang va Nha nU6c da tien hanh xay dvfng mot loat 18 19
  10. cac the che trong nong nghiep. Vdi muc tieu la thuc hien 96%; nam 1998: 60,72%. Ddi song cua nong dan trong khoan san pham cuoi cCing den nhom va ngUdi lao dong. vung da diidc cai thien dang ke. Stf tang trUdng k i n h te Chi t h i 100 da tao nen mot dong lUc manh me thiic day khong nhiing lam cho qui tieu dung b i n h quan d^u ngifdi san xuat nong nghiep phat trien, san liidng lUdng thtfc tang len, tao nguon vat chat de thvfc hien cac muc tieu tang dang ke, gop phan cai thien miic song cua dai bo ve xa h o i . phan ngifdi nong dan dang d trong t i n h t r a n g thieu Chien liidc phat trien k i n h te xa hoi 2001- 2010 cua lUdng thiic. N g h i quyet 10 (1988) va L u a t dat dai (ban hanh nam 1993) la h a i the che quan trong tiep theo da nii6c ta difdc D a i hoi dai bieu toan quoc Ian t h i i I X thong tao nen dong lUc mdi cho viec h i n h t h a n h mot nen nong qua da xac dinh v i the cua viing: "D6ng bang song Hong Id nghiep lay ho dan lam ddn v i san xuat cd ban, hifdng tdi vung kinh te trong diem Bdc Bo: Chuyen dich manh cd cdu muc tieu san xuat hang hoa. Cung can noi them r&ng doi kinh tevd ca cau lao dong, dita nhieu lao dong nong nghiep v6i ngiidi nong dan dong bang song Hong, viec san xuat sang cac ngdnh cong nghiep, dich vu vd di lap nghiep ncfi nong nghiep hudng t6i rftuc tieu san xuat hang hoa la khdc. hoan toan m6i me. Nen san xuat nho mang t i n h tieu Phat trien nong nghiep hdng hoa da dang. Ciing vdi nong, t\i cung t u cap khep k i n trong khong gian lang xa liCcmg thUc, dita vu dong thdnh mot the manh, hinh da an sau vao cung each lam an cua moi c\i dan viing dat thanh cac viing chuyen canh rau, cay an qua, thit, hoa; nay. Chinh v i vay, cac cai each the che trong nong md rong nudi, trong thuy san. Phat trien manh cong nghiep noi tren da mang den cho ngiidi nong dan mot nghiep chebien vd cd khiphuc vu nong nghiep, cac cum, sinh k h i m6i, tao nhi3ng dieu kien t h u a n Idi de phat diem cong nghiep, dich vu vd Idng nghe d nong thon. t r i e n san xuat nong nghiep. Ket qua la san lifdng liidng thiic khong ngiing tang len, tii mot nifdc thieu lifdng Trong viing kinh te trong diem, phat trien cac khu thUc, Viet N a m t r d t h a n h mot nif6c xuat k h a u gao 16n cong nghiep, khu cong nghe cao, cong nghiep xuat khau, t r e n the gi6i. Toe do tang trifdng GDP lien tuc tang trong cong nghiep dien tic, thong tin vd mot so ca sa ca khi nhieu nam. Trong do nong nghiep dong gop 1/4 tong dong tdu, luyen kim, phan bon; cac dich vu c6 hdm lUOng GDP cua ca niidc. Rieng dong gop ciia k h u vvfc nong thon tri thiic cao; cac trung tdm manh cua viing vd cd nUdc vi dong bang song Hong v6i toan vung nay n h u sau: nam ddo tao, khoa hoc vd cong nghe, thUOng mai, y te, vdn 1995: 61,92%GDP; nam 1996: 62,065; nam 1997: 60, hoa, du lich. ,^ ,„r
  11. Hoctn thdnh vd ndng cap ket cau ha tang, triidc hei cong bang vd vdn minh, tien biCdc vUng chac ten chu Id cdc tuyen quoc 16, cdc cdng khu viCc Hdi Phong, Cdi nghla xd hoV'^^K Ldn, cdc sdn bay"^^\ Dang cong san Viet N a m da xac dinh vai tro to 16n Phat t r i e n k i n h te - xa hoi vung trong diem k i n h te cua van hoa trong qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai dong bang song Hong dat van de coi van hoa n h i i la mot hoa dat nv(6c noi chung va vung nong thon, nong nghiep nguon \\ic quan trong. Do vay, nghien cvLu cac giai phap trong do c6 vung dong bang song Hong noi rieng. phat huy vai tro cua van hoa "la nen tang t i n h t h a n xa Doi v6i nii6c ta, mot nifdc nong nghiep, dai bo phan hoi, vijfa la muc tieu, vijfa la dong l\ic" d day la van de dan CM song d nong thon (gan 80%), viec tien hanh hien trong t a m . dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep c6 vai tro dac biet quan trong. V a n de dat ra la chiing ta cong nghiep hoa, hien in. Vai tro cua van hoa trong qua trinh cong nghiep dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep nhif the nao? Chfic ch^n hoa, hien dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep nu6c ta noi khong phai la qua t r i n h lam bien mat nong nghiep de c6 chung va dong b^ng song Hong noi rieng cong nghiep, lam bien mat nong thon de thay vao do la t h a n h t h i , lam mat nong dan de chi con t h i dan. Bai hoc Trong giai doan doi m6i va cong nghiep hoa, hien ve sii t h a n h cong va that bai cua nhieu quoc gia dan toe dai hoa dat nxidc, Dang cong san V i e t N a m da chu bao gom nhieu nU6c t i i ban va nhQng nutdc dang phat trifdng xay dvfng va phat t r i e n nen van hoa Viet N a m trien da p h u nhan nhfing ly thuyet, nhflng con diidng tien tien, dam da ban sac dan toe v6i muc tieu "Zdm phat trien khong dung d^n k h i giai quyet van de nong cho vdn hoa thdm sdu vdo todn bo ddi song vd hoat thon, nong nghiep: dong xa hoi, vdo tiing ngi/di, tilng gia dinh, tiCng tap the vd cong dong, titng dia bdn dan cU, vdo moi linh T h i i nhat: Ly thuyet nhan manh den sil can thiet vUc quan he con ngi/di, tao ra tren dat niCdc ta ddi song trong thdi ky dau, phat trien manh nong nghiep va nong tinh than cao dep, trinh do dan tri cao, khoa hoc phdt thon de lam cho difa cho phat trien cong nghiep va do trien, phuc vu ddc lUc cho sU nghiep cdng nghiep hoa, t h i . N h i i n g ve lau dai sU phat trien ciia ban t h a n nong hien dai hoa vi muc tieu ddn gidu, nitdc manh, xd hoi • " V a n k i e n H o i nghi Ian thur nam B C H T W k h o a 8. N X B C h i n h trj quoc g i a . ' " V a n kien D a i hoi D a i bieiu loan quoc c u a D a n g l^n thii I X . S d d . tr 1 8 2 - 1 8 3 . H.1998..tr.34-55. ^ " 23 22
  12. Gan day, sU t h a n h cong cua mot so nUdc Dong A nghiep, nong thon n h i i the nao t h i khong can biet den. n h u H a n Quoc, Dai Loan, Malaixia... da chi ra r^ng can Ly thuyet nay chi muo'n nong nghiep va nong thon dong CO sU ket hdp hai hoa phat trien nong thon, nong nghiep vai tro ngUdi "day t d " phuc vu cho l i n h v\ic dudc "cUng vdi sU phat trien cong nghiep, do t h i . Trong do cac nguon chieu" la cong nghiep va do t h i . Dieu nay dan den sU boc liic va cac yeu to' noi sinh ma con ngUdi la t r u n g t a m , lot cua do t h i doi v6i nong thon lam suy kiet ddi song van hoa dia phUdng (dia phUdng dung vdi nghla van hoa nong thon trong qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai dan toe, van hoa viing) la cd sd de phat buy va de tiep hoa. Tat yeu dan den sii roi loan k i n h te - xa hoi, phat nhan, lUa chon mot each sang tao cac yeu to ngoai sinh t r i e n khong ben vQng n h u nhieu nxidc t r e n the gidi ma de phat trien. chung ta da biet. Ngay nay ly thuyet do v^n con dUdc duy t r i va c6 ngUdi da du bao rang: "Cach mang cong Quan diem cua Dang Cong san Viet Nam cho rSng nghiep tat yeu di lien vdi do t h i hoa tong the va d i n den cong nghiep hoa hien dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep 6 cai chet t u a n t u ciia van m i n h nong thon". nUdc ta lay con ngiidi lam muc tieu va dong lUc, c6 nghia la phat buy tiem nang sang tao cua con ngUdi va nang - T h i i hai: L y thuyet cho rhng cac nxidc dang phat cao ddi song cung nhU chat lUdng con ngUdi ve moi mat. t r i e n c6 the "nhay thSng" tu: xa hoi nong nghiep sang xa De dat dUdc muc tieu do qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien hoi cong nghiep diia vao cac nguon luc va cac yeu to' van dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep phai dUdc tien hanh tren hoa ngoai sinh la chinh, thong qua "tie'p nhan ca goi ve nen tang vQng chic la van hoa, nhOng gia t r i t i n h t h a n von khoa hoc, cong nghe, ky thuat, cac phUdng phap cua dan toe, nhQng gia t r i mang sfic thai vung, mien ket quan ly, cac gia t r i chuan mUc txi ben ngoai de tien hanh hdp vdi viee tie'p t h u cac t h a n h tUu van hoa, van m i n h bon qui t r i n h : Cong nghiep hoa - hien dai hoa - tU do hoa cua nhan loai. Chung ta c6 the xem xet vai tro cua van - phUdng Tay hoa. L y thuyet nay da that bai d nhieu hoa d mot so van de cd ban sau day: nxidc the gidi t h i i ba trong nhiSng thap ky viia qua ca ve - V a n hoa t r u y e n thong (cua dan toe va lang xa) gixi phUdng dien k i n h te va xa hoi. Ve k i n h te, no bien cac vai tro cd sd lUa chon mo h i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai nu6c dang phat t r i e n t h a n h con nd cua cac nUdc phat hoa nong thon, nong nghiep. trien, cac cong ty xuyen quo'c gia. Ve van hoa, no xoa bo cac dac trUng van hoa dan toe lam dijft g l y t r u y e n thong, - T i n h bon dung van hoa trong van boa lang xa - cd suy thoai moi trUdng tU nhien va roi loan xa hoi. sd cho viee ehuyen doi cd cau k i n h te, da dang hoa cac '25 24
  13. l i n h vUc san xuat, k i n h doanh dich v u d nong thon hien .ao'il ^fforr ^nnv 'Hid nay . ' ' - Trong qua t r i n h chuyen doi cd cau k i n h te, tiep nhan khoa hoc cong nghe, gan san xuat - che bien - dich Chuongll vu vdi t h i triidng t h i nghe t h u cong truyen thong (mot Khao sat mot so Unh v a c trong ddi song yeu to' van hoa lang xa) c6 vai tro dac biet to 16n. van hoa - xa hoi nong thon dong bang - V a n hoa hien dai vdi t i i each la t r i n h do dan t r i , song Hong khoa hoc va cong nghe giiJ vai tro nguon lUc eua qua t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong thon, nong nghiep dong bang song Hong. Tom l a i : V a i tro ciia van hoa (van hoa truyen thong, Nong thon dong hkng song Hong la mot k h u viic dia van hoa vdi tif each la t r i n h do dan t r i khoa hoc, cong - k i n h te - van hoa - xa hoi quan trong. Chinh v i vay, no nghe, thong t i n , dao diic, t i n h cong dong...) doi vdi qua khong chi la doi tifdng tac dong cua nhieu chu trifdng, t r i n h cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa nong thon, nong difdng loi, chinh sach cua Dang va Nha nifdc ma con la nghiep nufdc ta la het siic to 16n. Dang Cong san Viet do'i tiidng nghien ciiu ciia nhieu chuyen nganh khoa hoc. Nam quan niem van hoa viia. la nen tang t i n h than cua Xet tii goc do van hoa hoc, day la mot vung c6 truyen xa hoi, viia la muc tieu, viia. la dong liic eua sii phat t r i e n thong van hoa lau ddi va phong p h i i vdi nhCng quan he k i n h te - xa hoi d niidc ta, khong chi tren binh dien ca cong dong, lang xa, quan he ho toe va phiidng hoi, nhiJng nxidc ma ca trong qua t r i n h phat t r i e n k i n h te - xa hoi d sinh hoat hoi he, dinh dam,... la ndi nay sinh va lifu giii nong thon theo hUdng cong nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa de nhiing hSng so' van hoa rat tieu bieu cho nen van m i n h tien len chii nghia xa hoi. Van de dat ra la t i m eac giai Ilia niidc Viet Nam. Ngay nay, k h i van hoa diidc dat vao phap de phat huy vai tro to 16n ay ciia van hoa, dtfa t i i vi t r i t r u n g tam, la "muc tieu, dong Ivfc cua s\i phat t r i e n tiidng cua Dang vao thiJc t i l n , hien thiic hoa nhijfng tiJ k i n h te - xa hoi" t h i viec nghien cHu, danh gia thUc trang tUdng do trong ddi song xa hoi. van hoa k h u viic nong thon dong bang song Hong se la mot hudc di can thiet tao cd sd cho viec t i m ra nhiing giai phap phat huy vai tro cua van hoa trong qua t r i n h cong 26 27
  14. nghiep hoa, hien dai hoa vung nong thon, nong nghiep tranh tre niia la, noi dung giao due, ehUdng trinh day hoc quan trong nay. dUdc nghien ciiu cai tien, cd hoi dUdc di hoc md ra doi vdi moi I . T i n h hinh dan t r i - giao due va sinh boat van hoa doi tUdng, chat liidng giao vien diide nang cao... tinh than Tuy vay, t i n h h i n h giao due pho thong d dong bang song Hong dang dat ra nhieu van de phiic tap: nong dan 1.1. Thuc trang giao due - ddo tao trong cU dan khong CO du tien de cho con em d i hoc va hoc len cap cao vung nong thon dong bang song Hong hdn, tre em bo hoc v i nhieu ly do. Trifdng hdp xa V i i Hoi Nong dan vung dong bang song Hong c6 t r u y e n thuoc huyen V u T h i i , t i n h T h a i B i n h la mot v i du*''. thong hieu hoc, dudi che do mdi truyen thong do dUdc V u Hoi chi each t h i xa T h a i B i n h khoang 3 k m . Xa khuyen khich, t r i n h do hoc van cao hdn nhieu vung CO 10.316 nhan khau, trong do tre em trong do tuoi 6-14 khac: 88% biet chQ, 100% cac t i n h , huyen, xa dUdc cong la 1.600 ngiidi (chiem 15, 5 1 % dan so). Toan xa c6 2465 nhan pho cap tieu hoc, nhieu huyen da dat chuan pho ho, trong do tren 73,5% ho lam nganh nghe tieu t h u cong cap t r u n g hoc cd sci. He thong giao due pho thong md ra nghiep va dich vu. Xa c6 nhieu nganh nghe tieu t h u cong rong khap: 100%) cac xa c6 trUdng tieu hoe va pho thong nghiep t r u y e n thong n h u che bien nong san (bun, banh t r u n g hoc cd sd, 100% cac huyen c6 tu: 1 - 4 trUdng pho da, mien, dau phu...), go due nhom - d6ng,lam tham... He thong t r u n g hoe. Co trUdng, Idp mau giao mam non d cac thong giao due pho thong d V u Hoi gom 2 cap: tieu hoc lang, xa, cac trUdng bo tue van hoa (giao due thudng va t r u n g hoc ed sd. Theo bao cao cua ban giam hieu cac xuyen), giao due eong dong d cap huyen, cap t i n h . So vdi trUdng t h i t\i nam hoc 1996-1997 den nay, triidng tieu cac vung mien khac trong ca nU6c t h i he thong trifdng, hoe khong eo hoc sinh bo hoc. N h i i n g chi eo khoang 16p, giao vien va hoe sinh d k h u vUe dong hkng song 83,7% hoe sinh tieu hoe tiep tue vao t r u n g hoe cd sd. Tu: Hong ehiem mot ty le kha cao. nam 1996 - 1997 den nam hoc 2002 - 2003, eo 112 hoc Khong chi diifng l a i d mat so liidng, neu n h i n mot sinh t r u n g hoe cd sd bd hoc. Theo dieu t r a , ty le tre em each k h a i quat he thong giao due hien nay so vdi he thong trong do tuoi 6 - 15 bo hoc giQa chiing la 8,5%, tap t r u n g giao due da tifng ton tai trong lich sii t h i da c6 nhieu cai bien chu yeu d Idp 8 va Idp 9. Cac em bo hoc vi nhiing nguyen ro ret ve ca chat lUdng: he thong cd sd vat chat trUdng 16p dudc nang cap, Idp hoc kien eo' da thay the cho cac Idp hoc " T a p c h i N g h i e n ciru k i n h te. sd 3 1 2 . 5 / 2 0 0 4 , trang 4 5 . 28 29
  15. nhan sau: lao dong phu giiip gia dinh 34,5%, hoc kem nhan chat lutdng giao due d nong thon con thap thi tai 17,2%, chan hoc 17,2% (vi nhieu ly do), dieu kien kinh te chinh 60 hep cQng gop phan han che so lifdng hoc sinh gia dinh kho khan 10,3 %... nong thon hxidc vao cac cap hoc cao hdn. De chi tra cho Nhin vao so' heu tren c6 the thay r&ng nguyen nhan chi phi giao due d bac pho thong trung hoc, ho nong dan den tinh trang hoc sinh bo hoc chu yeu lai la do giup thdn phai danh ra 48% thu nhap dau ngiidi trong hd, gia dinh lam kinh te. NhQng Idi ich kinh te triidc mat da trong khi ho thanh thi chi phai danh ra 28% thu nhap lam gia tang ty le tre em bo hoc. Chi phi cho mot tre di dau ngiidi. Chd nen de chi tra 400.000 den hoc mat 14% thu nhap ciia gia dinh ngheo nhat va 7% SOO.OOOd/thang cho mot sinh vien hoc dai hoc la viidt thu nhap cua gia dinh giau. Doi vdi cac gia dinh nong qua thu nhap cua mot ho nong dan c6 miic song trung thon, viec trang trai kinh phi cho con cai di hoc qua la binh. mot ganh nang Idn. Va cang hoc cao thi cac khoan chi Qua khao sat ve thiJc trang giao due d mot so dia phi cang nhieu (hoc phi, xay dilng triidng Idp, cac loai phadng thuoc nong thon dong bang song Hong thay noi quy, tien hoc them...). Trong khi do, mot diia tre nghi len mot so'van de sau: hoc d nha viia bdt dUdc mot khoan chi cho viec hoc tap, - Chat liidng giao due thap. Bieu hien d cd sd vat vxia CO the tang them thu nhap cho ho gia dinh nhd lad chat (triidng 16p, do dung day hoc.) thieu tho'n. Ty le dong ciia diia tre. Nhijtng dia phutdng ma lang nghe phat hoc sinh vao cao dang, dai hoc va cac triidng trung hoc trien nhii Ninh Hiep ( Gia Lam - Ha Noi), Da Hoi (Tien day nghe khong cao. Doi ngii giao vien viia thieu ve so' Sdn - Bkc Ninh)...ty le tre bo hoc d nha giup gia dinh lam lUdng, vCfa yeu ve chuyen mon. kinh te cad. Miic thu nhap hang thang ciia cac em khdang 300-400.000 dong. Vi Idi ich kinh te thu dUdc khi - Ty le hoc sinh bo hoc con cao. tot nghiep them m6t cap hoc nho hdn Idi ich kinh te thu difdc - ChUa chii trong tdi viec hvfdng nghiep, dao tao triicic mat do diia tre mang lai neu nghi hoc, nen nhieu gia nghe, thUe hien phifdng cham hoc di doi vdi hanh, dac dinh da dat van de Idi ich kinh te len trifdc, buoc tre phai biet la d cap trung hoc pho thong. nghi hoc giup gia dinh. Nhii tren da noi, giao due lien quan chat che tdi Ngoai ra, ty le hoc sinh thi do dai hoc d nong thon chat liidng nguon nhan \\ic. Hien d nong thon, dac biet so v6i thanh thi thap hdn rat nhieu. Ben canh nguyen la d cac lang nghe, phan Idn trinh do tay nghe cua 30 31
  16. ngadi lao dong c6 difdc do h i n h thiic tvi hoc, t r u y e n 1.2. Thuc trqng hudng thu van hoa tinh nghe. Chi c6 mot so' lao dong sut dung thie't bi may moc than vd cdc thie't che van hoa Idng xd la dUdc hoc k y t h u a t cd ban. Khong chi ngUdi lao dong - Qua t r i n h hUdng t h u van hoa dUdc quyet dinh mot trUc tiep CO t r i n h do hoc van han che ma t r i n h do nang each trUc tiep bdi nhQng dieu kien k i n h te, vat chat. liic ciaa ngUdi quan ly cung con nhieu bat cap: 20% cac Trong nhiing nam gan day, ddi song cua ngUdi nong dan giam doc cong ty, doanh nghiep, chu nhiem HTX, to hdp difdc cai thien, song n h i n chung, nhflng chi tieu danh tac, chu ho gia dinh c6 hoc van chifa het cap 3, phan 16n cho sinh boat van hoa con thap. Sinh boat van hoa cua chiJa qua dao tao chuyen mon, chUa dUdc t r a n g b i cxi dan nong thon chu yeu d trong pham v i gia dinh, neu nhi2ng kien thufc can thiet trong l i n h vUc quan t r i k i n h CO md rong ra khong gian lang xa t h i la sxi chon doanh, t h i e u hieu biet ve phap l u a t va cac chinh sach c6 t h a m gia nhutng loai h i n h sinh boat van hoa truyen lien quan den l i n h vUc k i n h te. Viec quan ly chu yeu thong: hoi le. Cac h i n h thilc sinh boat van hoa hien dai: dUa vao k i n h nghiem la chinh, nen viec suy nghi t i n h xem phim, ca nbac, chdi the thao, di du lich... cung cac toan hieu qua san xuat k i n h doanh cung nhxi viec md san pham van hoa: sach, bao, tap chi, bang dia... con chifa rong l a m an theo quy mo 16n ciia chu doanh nghiep gap phd bien d khu vUc nong thon. V i gidi han trong pham vi gia nhieu kho k h a n . Nhieu k h u cong nghiep k h i tuyen dinh nen cac hinh thiic hifdng t h u van hoa chu yeu la thong ngUdi l a m deu vfu tien cho con em dia phUdng sd t a i , qua cac phUdng tien truyen thong dai chung. nhUng v i t r i n h do hoc van khong dap ling difdc yeu cau NhiJng v i e c ngifofi d a n thif6?ng l a m k h i r a n h roi cua nha tuyen dung, nen c6 rat i t lao dong dia phifdng tai V a n Mon - B a c N i n h " ' dUdc n h a n vao l a m viec d cac v i t r i tdt trong cac k h u Thu-ofng ThJnh Khong cong nghiep nay. Ddn cii n h u k h u L i e n hiep the thao xuyen thoang M y D i n h , cac nha tuyen dung chi tuyen diidc 2 ngUdi Xem t i v i 60,4 33,0 6,5 dia phUdng vao lam viec va l a m d v i t r i bao ve. Gan day, Nghe nhac 12,6 32,2 54,8 t a i nong thon dong bSng song Hong, viec xuat k h a u lao dong kha pho bien. NhUng cung do han che ve t r i n h do, Xem video 3,5 30,0 66,1 tay nghe, nen lao dong Viet N a m ra nU6c ngoai chu yeu " ' I r a n l"hi Lan Huong: Tdc dong cua plum king wife song vao qua trinh phdt l a m nhQng cong viec chan tay gian ddn. then van luki nong thon. Nxb Van hoa Thong tin. H.2000.. tr 179. 33
  17. Doc sach bao 16,1 23,0 60,9 Cac k e t qua d i e u t r a t r e n cho t h a y , x e m t i v i l a b o a t C h d i b a n be, h a n g x o m 41,7 44,3 13,9 d o n g h i f d n g t h u v a n boa pho b i e n n h a t cua n g i f d i d a n n o n g t h o n . Co t d i 60,4% so'ngUdi diidc h o i d V a n M o n t r a Uo'ng rxiau 13,0 19,6 67,0 Idi b o a t d o n g v a n hoa s i i d u n g t h d i g i a n r o i ciia ho l a L a m vxibn 2,6 2,6 94,8 x e m t i v i , con so do d H a i H a u la 77,6%. Cac v a n boa Tap T D T T 20,0 9,1 70,8 p h a m n h a sach, bao m 6 i chi t h u h u t s\i q u a n t a m t h i i d n g Sinh boat C L B 3,0 5,2 85,7 x u y e n cua 1 6 , 1 % so n g i f d i dUdc h o i d V a n M o n va 16,3% d H a i H a u . D a y la m o t con so' t i i d n g doi k h i e m t o n v a t h U d n g r d i vao so' ho k h a gia, c6 hoc t h i i c . C h u n g t o i t a n Mvtc d o t h a m g i a b o a t d o n g t h a n h each l y g i a i cua GS. T i f d n g L a i ve v a n de nay: v a n b o a t i n b t b a n t a i H a i H a u (%) "Viec m u a sach cho n g i f d i 16n va t r e em n h i n c h u n g l a Tbu-ofng Tbinh Kbong t h a p . N h o m t h u n h a p t h a p n h a t cua H a i H U n g (cu) c h i xuyen tboang t b a m gia la 2,5%. Sach l a m o t n h u cau qua x a x i doi v 6 i cuoc song Xem tivi 77,6 19,2 3,1 con n h i e u g i a n t r u a n . P h a i d m o t mijfc t h u n h a p to'i t h i e u Xem Video 6,8 47,5 45,6 nao do, n g i i d i t a m 6 i c6 t h e dap i i n g m o t n h u cau van hoa cho d u n h u cau do t i e m a n t r o n g tufng n g i f d i . Khii Nghe dai 60,5 30,5 9,0 d a n g con qua v a t va de lo t o a n m i e n g cdm m a n h ao, cho X e m p h i m , ca nhac, 4,6 33,6 61,8 n h Q n g n h u cau cap b a c h ve ddi song v a t chat: a n , d, d i s a n k h a u n d i cong l a i , t h u o c m e n k h i d a u 6'm, c h a m soc n g i i d i gia, c i i n g gio, cong ca6i x i n , viec m u a sach c h i i a t h e l a k h o a n c h i thiJdng Doc sach,bao 16,3 41,5 42,1 x u y e n difdc""". T h a m gia doi 5,7 1,7 92,6 Nhut vay, k h o n g c h i t o n t a i m o t k h o a n g each giuta T h a n h ca cif d a n do t h i va n o n g t h o n t r o n g viec h t f d n g t h u v a n T h a m gia doi 6,1 1,0 92,9 ken dong " ' L i r o n g H o n g Q i i a n g (clui b i e n ) : Van hoa cua nhoni ngheo a Viet Nam. thi(c Khac 81,8 18,2 0,0 trung va gidi plu'ip. V i e n V a n hoa va N x b V a j j - h o a thong tin. H . 2 0 0 1 , tr 2 2 4 . 226. 34 35
  18. hoa, ma trong noi bo k h u vUc nong thon cung da c6 sU Xem phim phan tang giQa nhOng ho gia dinh c6 t h u nhap thap v6i ThUdng xuyen 3.0 7.0 4.0 5.5 3.5 nhQng ho gia dinh c6 t h u nhap cao hdn, du dau hieu T h i n h thdang 31.2 36.0 36.0 26.1 38.8 phan tang nay chifa thiic siJ rd net. Khong 65.8 57.0 60.0 68.3 57.7 T h a m gia c a c hoat dong giai t r i theo n h o m c h i t i e u D o c bao, s a c h (So'lieu dieu t r a t a i huyen H a i Hau)" Thiidng xuyen 10.1 14.0 15.5 17.6 24.4 Rat Trung Kha T h i n h thdang 32.2 48.0 40.5 41.2 45.8 Ngheo Giau ngheo binh gia Khdng 57.8 38.0 44.0 41.2 29.9 X e m v6 t u y e n Tong 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 ThUdng xuyen 63.8 80.0 79.0 82.4 82.6 T h i n h thoang 27.6 19.0 18.5 15.6 15.9 Tdm l a i , vd tuyen truyen h i n h dong vai tro la kenh Khong 8.5 1.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 thdng t i n quan trong nhat trong v i e c ket no'i ngiidi ndng X e m Video dan v6i cudc sdhg ben ngdai l u y tre lang. Xem t i v i la Thiidng xuyen 2.5 5.0 11.5 9.5 5.5 h i n h thiic sii dung thdi gian rdi pho bien nhat cua cif dan T h i n h thoang 38.2 dong bang song Hong. Cac h i n h thiic sinh boat va hUdng 53.0 47.0 50.3 49.3 t h u v a n hda khac Cd nhiing miic dd phd bien khdng cad. Khong 59.3 42.0 41.5 40.2 45.3 Nguyen nhan chu yeu cua t i n h t r a n g nay la dd miic sd'ng Nghe d a i cua ngifdi dan ndng thdn cdn thap, cac tien nghi sdng ThUdng xuyen 57.8 60.5 64.0 54.8 65.2 thieu thdn, dd vay hdat dcing h U d n g t h u van hda bi ban T h i n h thdang 28.1 29.5 29.0 36.7 29.4 che rat n h i e u . Mac d u d mdt sd' v u n g que, d a c biet la cac Khong 14.1 10.0 7.0 8.5 t h i tran, t h i tijf, cac dich v u v a n hda hien dai nhif 5.5 Karadke, tro c h d i d i e n t i i , c i i ^ hang chd thue bang dia, ban b i - a . . . d a xuat hien n h U n g c u n g chi t h u hut mdt sd L u o n g H o n g Q u a n g ( c h u b i e n ) : Van luki nhom ngheo a Viel Nam. Thifc trong va gicii phap. V i e n v a n h o a v a N x b V a n hoa nghe thuat. H , 2 0 0 1 . T r . 2 2 6 . lUdng nhd t h a n h thieu nien t h a m dU. 36 37
  19. N e n v a n m i n h n o n g n g h i e p l u a niidc v 6 i nhQng t h a y r & n g t r a i qua n h i e u t h a n g t r a m , nhiJng h i n h a n h n g h i le, t i n n g i l d n g cua no vkn hkng ton trong sinh hoat nhCtng ngoi d i n h , ngoi c h u a l u o n g&n chat v 6 i cac lang v a n hoa l a n g xa 6 d o n g b a n g song H o n g . SiJ h i e n d i e n que, l a m o t p h a n k h o n g t h e t h i e u dufdc cua k h o n g g i a n l u a n p h i e n cua n h Q n g h o i le m i n h c h i i n g cho d i e u n a y . v a n hoa l a n g xa. B d i vay, k h i ddi song k i n h te difdc cai T i n h cong d o n g l a n g x a - m o t t r o n g n h Q n g can t i n h cua t h i e n , n g i f d i d a n k h & p n d i l a i k h o n g tiec siic ngUdi, siic v a n hoa c6 t r u y e n V i e t N a m m a cac nha nghien ciiu cua dong gop t u bo den chua. Co m o t h i e n tiJdng k h a dac thUOng de cap k h i n g h i e n c i i u ve v a n hoa l a n g - t i e p tuc b i e t l a viec q u y e n gop t u bo, x a y d t t n g d i n h , c h u a , den, t o n t a i va p h a t h u y gia t r i t r o n g ddi song d i f d n g d a i : m i e u diidc n g i i d i d a n hiJdng l i n g mot each r a t t\i n g u y e n . Q u a n he gia d i n h , gia toe difdc c u n g co"; Q u a n he l a n g xa Q u a k h a o sat ve ddi song v a n hoa d m o t so x a thuoc t i n h dUdc p h u c h o i v 6 i svf t r d l a i c i i a cac h o i he, d i n h d a m . . . H a i D i i d n g , can bo dia p h i i d n g deu de cap t 6 i v a n de nay. P h o n g t r a o t o a n d a n x a y diJng l a n g , t h o n v a n hoa n g a y N h i e u k h i can bo d i ho hao n h a n d a n dong gop de l a m n a y c l i n g n h a m p h a t h u y t i n h cong d o n g de x a y d t l n g cac cong t r i n h p h u c I d i c h u n g nhxi d i e n , dUdng... t h i r a t m o t n o n g t h o n m 6 i v a n m i n h va p h a t t r i e n . V a khong k h o . N h i f n g doi v d i viec t u bo d i n h c h u a t h i n h a n d a n l a i g i a n m a n h Q n g l i n g xvi t h e h i e n m o t each t a p t r u n g n h a t s i n sang dong gop. Tijfng l a n g , xa, n h a n dan t i i l a p r a cac t i n h cong d o n g c h i n h l a t a i cac t h i e t che v a n hoa t r u y e n h o i q u y e n gop, d i q u y e n t i e n cua cong dilc x a y dUng, t o n t h o n g : d i n h c h u a , den, m i e u . . . t r o n g cac d i p h o i l l . tao d i n h chua. D i e u do cho t h a y t r o n g t a m t h i l c n g i f d i n o n g d a n , cac t h i e t che v a n hoa t r u y e n t h o n g c h i e m m o t D a CO m o t t h d i , d i n h , c h u a , den, m i e u . . . b i x e m l a v i t r i h e t siic q u a n t r o n g . N h Q n g s i n h hoat v a n hoa m a n g t a n d\i cua che do p h o n g k i e n co h u , lac h a u , day doa con t i n h CO t r u y e n nhxi le h o i , d i n h d a m , rxidc sach da n h a n h n g i f d i . V i vay, d n h i e u n d i , ngUdi t a da t h S n g t a y t a n p h a chong phuc h o i va t h u h u t dong dao ngxibi n o n g d a n d cac n h i i n g cong t r i n h nay. Tiep do, k h i nhiJng each n g h i , l a n g xa v u n g dong b a n g song H o n g h i e n nay. each l a m a u t r i n h i i v a y i t n h i e u difdc c h i n h sxia t h i n h i e m v u san x u a t , chong doi, c h o h g ngoai x a m dUdc d a t Trifdc D o i m 6 i , da tCfng t o n t a i p h o n g t r a o x a y d i i n g l e n h a n g d a u , ngUdi ta c u n g i t q u a n t a m den nhufng v a n ddi song v a n hoa mdi, t r o n g do xa difdc x e m n h i i ddn v i de khac. C h i e n t r a n h , t h i e n t a i l a nhutng tac n h a n t i e p cd sd de t i e n h a n h x a y dUng ddi song v a n hoa d n o n g tuc h u y h o a i nhi2ng k i e n t r u e v a n hoa nay. H a u het cac t h o n . C h i e n lUdc " X a y d a n g ddi song v a n hoa ci cd sd" da n g o i d i n h , chvia, cac bijfc h o a n h p h i , cau doi... m a chung de r a 6 h o a t dong, t r d t h a n h mo t i p c h u n g cho h o a t d o n g t a t h a y h o m n a y m 6 i diJdc tao d i i n g l a i . N h u vay, c6 t h e dua v a n hoa ve xa: p h o n g t r a o doc sach, giao due t r u y e n 38
  20. thong, phong trao van nghe quan chiing, nep song mdi, Tuy nhien, viec dau t\i cd sd vat chat can va du cho gia dinh van hoa m6i va cong tac thong t i n co dong. cac thiet che van hoa nay duy t r i hoat dong con la van de Muo'n trien k h a i diidc cac hoat dong do can phai c6 nan giai. Da phan cac xa chi c6 mot san bai de chdi the nhflng cd sd vat chat, triidc het la t r u sd, nha cvLa, phong thao hoac to chile cac hoat dong chung. Can bo van hoa 6c. Cac xa da c6' g&ng xay diJng phong doc sach, thif vien, xa la can bo kiem chile. K i n h p h i danh cho hoat dong nha truyen thong, cau lac bo, dpi thong t i n . . . K i n h p h i van hoa qua khiem ton. Noi dung sinh hoat ciia tilng loai cho cac hoat dong nay da phan do tti tren rot xuong hoac h i n h chiia thilc sil p h u hdp vdi nhip song, sinh hoat cua trich quy phiic Idi cua hdp tac xa mang t i n h bao cap. c\i dan nong thon. Chinh do phUdng thilc hoat dong nay ma k h i chuyen Cac hoat dong van hoa mdi can phai t i n h den thilc sang nen k i n h te t h i trifdng, cung v6i sU giai the cac hdp te ddi song d nong thon cua vilng nay van con mang dam tac xa nong nghiep, cac thiet che nay khong hoat dong nhQng gia t r i van hoa truyen thong. Khong the ap dat dUdc nQa. mot each may moc mo h i n h van hoa cua xa hoi cong' Ke ta sau Nghi quyet T r u n g ifdng 5 khoa V I I I chu nghiep vao xa hoi nong nghiep, van hoa t h i dan vao nong trifdng "Ve xay diing nen van hoa Viet N a m tien tien, dan. Hdn nila, n h i l n g sinh hoat van hoa cua ngifdi dan dam da ban sic dan toe", phong trao xay dvfng ddi song nong thon con t u a n theo t i n h chat miia vu, ma nhQng van hoa d nong thon l a i difdc quan tarn, chu trong. hoat dong van hoa cua cac loai h i n h thiet che van hoa Phong trao "Toan dan doan ket xay dUng ddi song van mdi l a i mang t i n h chat sil dung thdi gian roi cua nhip hoa", xay dxing "Lang van hoa", "Gia dinh van hoa"... da song do t h i . Chinh v i vay, cac hoat dong cua cac loai CO nhQng tac dong nhat dinh doi v6i ddi song van hoa h i n h thiet che van hoa mdi ehiia thilc sil tham nhap vao nong thon. Mot loat cac thiet che van hoa m6i dudc t a i cuoc song cua ngildi nong dan. thiet va c6 cai bien cho p h u hdp vdi t i n h h i n h m6i. 6 k h u viic nong thon dong bang song Hong hien dang ton t a i I I . T r i n h do van hoa trong san xuat kinh doanh nhieu loai h i n h thiet che van hoa hien dai khac nhau: 2.1. Trinh do van hoa trong san xuat nong nghiep nha van hoa, san the thao, phong truyen thong, thxi vien, cac cau lac bo, san van dong... Cac h i n h thiic thiet Ke t i l sau Dai hoi V I cua Dang, mot loat cac chu che van hoa nay difdc to chile, t h u hiit ngildi t h a m d\i trUdng, chinh sach cua Dang va Nha n\Xdc difde ban diia tren sd thich, lila tudi, nang khieu... hanh da tao dieu kien cho nong thon dong hkng song 40 41
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