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UNIT FIVE THE NATURE OF THINGS 1. READING VOCABULARY: 1. penguin //peNgwin/(n): a black and white bird that lives by the ocean around Antarctica and cannot fly: chim cánh cụt 2. sweater //swetC/(n): a warm piece of clothing that covers your upper body and arms: áo len cổ chui 3. lover //lVvC/(n): someone who likes or enjoys something very much: người thích thú hoặc ưa chuộng cái gì 4. save /seIv/(v): [transitive] to make it possible for someone or something to avoid danger, harm, injury, etc.: cứu vớt, cứu vãn Campaigns to save the planet/whale: Các chiến dịch cứu vãn hành tinh / cá heo 5. soak /sCUk/(v): [intransitive or transitive] to make something very wet, or to become very wet: thấm nước The rain soaked our clothes: Nước mưa làm ướt áo chúng tôi. 6. knit /knIt/(v): [intransitive or transitive] to make something such as a piece of clothing using wool and sticks called knitting needles: đan, dệt 7. in response to: a reaction: đáp lại 8. insulation /Insju/leISn/(n): material used for preventing heat, cold, noise, or electricity from passing through something: vật cách ly 9. endanger /In/deINdZC/(v): to put someone or something into a situation where they might be harmed: gây nguy hiểm cho ai / cái gì Smoking endangered your health: Hút thuốc có hại cho sức khỏe. 10. wash into: to flow or carry sb/sth in a particular direction: trôi vào, dạt vào 11. habitat //hAbItAt/(n): the type of place that an animal normally lives in or a plant normally grows in: nơi cư trú natural habitat: nơi cư trú tự nhiên 12. conservation /kOnsC/veISn/(n): the management of land and water in ways that prevent it from being damaged or destroyed: sự bảo tồn a wildlife conservation project: dự án bảo tồn đời sống hoang dã 13. hypothermia /haIpC/TC:mIC/(v): a serious medical condition in which your body temperature is very low: sự giảm thể nhiệt 14. poisoning //pcIZCnIN/(n): an occasion when someone is affected by poison: sự nhiễm độc mushroom/mercury/chemical/alcohol poisoning: sự nhiễm độc nấm rôm / thủy ngân/ hóa chất / rượu 15. woolens //wUlCnz/(v): clothing made from wool, especially by KNITTING: quần áo len 16. ideal /aI/di:Cl/(a): of the best or most appropriate type: lý tưởng The fair provides an ideal opportunity for jobseekers and employers to meet: Hội chợ tạo cơ hội tuyệt vờI cho những người tìm việc và những nhà tuyển dụng gặp gỡ nhau. 17. pick up: (phrasal verb) to get or obtain something: có được, đạt được 18. broadcast //brc:dkAst/(v): [intransitive or transitive] to send out messages or programs to be received by radios or televisions: phát sóng, phát hình 19. demand /dI/mAnd/(n): [uncount] the amount of a product or service that people want, or the fact that they want it: nhu cầu 18,400 new houses will be needed by 2011 to cope with the demand: Đến năm 2011 cầm 18.400 căn nhà mới để đáp ứng được nhu cầu. demand for: Demand for organic food is increasing.: Nhu cầu thực phẩm hữu cơ đang gia tăng 20. in case: if: nếu, trong trường hợp In case you can’t come, give me a call before I leave for work: Nếu bạn không đến được, hãy gọi điện cho tôi trước khi tôi tan sở. 21. waterproof //wc:tCpru:f/(a): waterproof clothes keep you dry because they do not let rain pass through them: không thấm nước a waterproof jacket: áo ves-tông không thấm nước IN THE KNOW: The penguins of Philip Island are very small, as can be seen in the photograph. They are also a tourist attraction. They walk along the same pathways from the sea to their nests every morning, and tourists go to watch them. 2. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR VOCABULARY: 1. Mongolia: nước Mông Cổ 2. be descended from: to be related to sb who live a long time ago: có nguồn gốc, có tổ tiên với ai 3. truly //tru:lI/(adv): in the most complete, correct, or exact way: thật sự, đích thực She was someone who truly understood children: Cô ta là một người thực sự hiểu trẻ em. 4. wild /waIld/(a): a wild animal or plant lives or grows on its own in natural conditions and is not raised by humans: hoang dã The wild rose is a familiar sight in woods and fields: Hoa hồng dại là hình ảnh quen thuộc trong những những cánh rừng và đồng cỏ. 5. domesticate /dC/mestIkeIt/(v): to train an animal to live with or work for humans: thuần hóa, thuần chủng 6. set aside (phrasal verb): to keep or save something from a larger amount or supply in order to use it later for a particular purpose: để riêng ra, để dành 7. steppe /step/(n) a large area of land with grass but few trees, especially in SE Europe and Siberia: thảo nguyên 3. VOCABULARY: PREFIXES VOCABULARY: 1. reintroduce /ri:IntrC/dju:s/(v): to bring back something such as a law, system, or benefit that had been stopped: REINSTATE: giới thiệu 2. coexist /kCUig/zIst/(v): to live or exist at the same time or in the same place: cùng sinh sống, cùng tồn tại 3. deforestation /di:fcrI/steISn/(n): the process of removing the trees from an area of land: nạn phá rừng 4. overfishing (n): fishing too much: nạn đánh bắt cá quá nhiều 5. misleading /mIs/li:dIN/(a: intended or likely to make someone believe something that is incorrect or not true: đem lại những ý nghĩ, v.v, sai; lừa dối 6. relocate /ri:lCU/keIt/(v): to move to a different place, or to make someone do this: tái định cư, dời địa điểm, đặt lại trụ sở I left my job because the company relocated: Tôi đã nghĩ việc vì công ty đã dời địa điểm. Affixes and roots (Tham Khảo thêm sách GRAMMAR TIME) Adding affixes to existing words (the base or root) to form new words is common in academic English. Prefixes are added to the front of the base (like dislike), whereas suffixes are added to the end of the base (active activate). Prefixes usually do not change the class of the base word, but suffixes usually do change the class of the word. The most common prefixes used to form new verbs in academic English are: re-, dis-, over-, un-, mis-, out-. The most common suffixes are: -ise, -en, -ate, -(i)fy. By far the most common affix in academic English is -ise. Verbs e.g. prefix + verb Prefix verb Meaning Examples re- dis- over- un- mis- out- be- co- de- fore- Inter- pre- sub- Trans- under- again or back reverses the meaning of the verb too much reverses the meaning of the verb badly or wrongly more or better than others make or cause together do the opposite of earlier, before between before under/below across, over not enough restructure, revisit, reappear, rebuild, refinance disappear, disallow, disarm, disconnect, discontinue overbook, oversleep, overwork unbend, uncouple, unfasten mislead, misinform, misidentify outperform, outbid befriend, belittle co-exist, co-operate, co-own devalue, deselect foreclose, foresee interact, intermix, interface pre-expose, prejudge, pretest subcontract, subdivide transform, transcribe, transplant underfund, undersell, undervalue, underdevelop 4. LISTENING VOCABULARY: 1. national park: (n) a large area of land that is protected by the government to preserve its natural beauty: vườn quốc gia 2. trash /trAS/(n): AMERICAN waste material such as paper, plastic bags, used containers, etc. British rubbish: rác rưởi, cặn bã 3. bear /beC/(n): a large wild animal with thick fur. There are several different types of bears, for example the polar bear and the grizzly bear. A young bear is called a bear cub: gấu 4. make a reservation: to book in advance: đặt trước 5. lock /lOk/(v): [transitive] to fasten something such as a door or a container, usually with a key, so that other people cannot open it: khóa John went out and locked the door behind him: John đi ra ngòai và khóa cửa lại. 6. controversy //kOntrCvE:sI/(n): a disagreement, especially about a public policy or a moral issue that a lot of people have strong feelings about: vấn đề gây tranh cãi 7. polarize //pCUlCraIz/(v): to form two very different groups, opinions, or situations that are completely opposite to each other, or to cause this to happen: hình thành hai nhóm xung đột hoàn tòan đối lập nhau, phân cực 8. inhabitant /In/hAbItCnt/(n): a person or animal that lives in a particular place: cư dân The city’s first inhabitants arrived in the 16th century: Những cư dân đầu tiên của thành phố đã đến đây vào thế kỷ thứ 16. 9. entrance //entrCns/(n): [count] the place where you can enter a room, building, or area: lối vào I’ll meet you at the main entrance at six o’clock: Tôi sẽ gặp anh ở cổng chính lúc 6 giờ. 10. spectacular /spek/tAkjClC/(a): extremely impressive: hung vĩ, rất ấn tượng We had a spectacular view of the coastline from the airplane: Từ trên máy bay chúng tôi nhìn xuống phong cảnh bờ biển rất lộng lẫy. 11. accessible /Ck/sesCbl/(a): an accessible place is easy to find or get to: có thể đi đến được accessible by: The city is easily accessible by road, train, or air: Có thể đi vào thành phố dễ dàng xe, tàu điện hoặc máy bay. 12. opposition /OpC/XXXzISn/(n):[uncount] strong disagreement with a plan or policy, especially when this is shown in active attempts to prevent something: sự chống đối opposition to: Public opposition to the military government is growing: Sự chống đối của dân chúng với chính quyền đang tăng lên. 13. mayor //meIC/(n): the most important elected official in a town or city: thị trưởng 14. park ranger /po:k /reIndZC/(n): someone whose job is to take care of a forest, national park, or state park: người bảo vệ rừng 15. shuttle bus: a bus, train, or airplane that makes frequent short trips between two places: xe búyt, tàu điện, hoặc máy bay đi lại đều đặn giữa hai nơi. 16. bike /baIk/(v): to ride somewhere on a bicycle: đi xe đạp hoặc xe máy 17. complain /kCmp/leIn/(v): to say that you are not satisfied with something: phàn nàn, than phiền 18. pollute /pC/lUt/(v): to make air, water, or land too dirty and dangerous for people to use in a safe way: gây ô nhiễm The oil spill has polluted the harbor: Việc tràn dầu đã làm ô nhiễm bến cảng. 19. electric /I/lektrIk/(a): working by electricity: sử dụng năng lượng điện, an electric motor: một môtơ điện 20. preserve /prI/zE:v/(v): to take care of a place or building in order to prevent it from being harmed or destroyed: bảo quản, bảo tồn 21. campground //kAmprraUnd/(n): a place where people on vacation can stay in tents or other temporary shelters; campsite: khu cắm trại , nơi cắm trại 22. camper //kAmpC/(n): someone who is staying in a tent or temporary shelter, usually for fun: người cắm trại 23. environment /In/vaIrCnmCnt/(n): [count] the place in which people live and work, including all the physical conditions that affect them: môi trường 24. minimize //mInImaIz/(v): to reduce something harmful or unpleasant to the smallest amount or degree: giảm tối đa, You can try to minimize the damage to innocent civilians: Các anh có thể cố gắng giảm tối đa thiệt hại cho người dân vô tội. 25. taste /teIst/(n): [count or uncount] the flavor that something creates in your mouth when you eat or drink it. Food can taste sweet like sugar, salty like salt, sour like a lemon, or bitter like strong black coffee: hương vị I love the taste of chocolate: Tôi yêu thích hương vị sôcôla. 26. shoot /Su:t/(v): to fire a gun: bắn, nổ súng We were ordered not to shoot until he gave the signal: Chừng nào anh ấy ra hiệu chúng tôi mới được nổ súng. 5. LANGUAGE IN ACTION: ADVICE AND WARNINGS VOCABULARY: 1. canoe /kC/nu:/(v): to travel in a canoe: đi bằng xuồng 2. life jackets /laIf /dZAkIt/(n): something you wear on a boat to make you float if you fall into the water by accident: áo cứu đắm 3. go on a camping trip: đi cắm trại 4. plastic //plAstIk/(n): [count or uncount] a very common light, strong substance produced by a chemical process and used for making many different things: nhựa, chất dẻo 5. sunscreen //sVnskri:n/(n): [count or uncount] a cream that you can rub onto your skin to stop it from being burned by the sun: kem chống nắng 6. go down: đi xuống 7. watch out for (phrasal verb) to be careful: cẩn thận Watch out, those mushrooms could be poisonous! Hãy cẩn thận, nấm này có thể có độc đấy! 8. bend /bend/(n): a curve in a road, river, etc.: khúc ngoặc, khúc cua As she approached the bend, a dog sprang into the road: Khi chúng tôi đi đến khúc cua, một con chó chạy bang ra đường. 6. VOCABULARY: NATURAL PHENOMENON VOCABULARY: 1. phenomenon /fC/nOmInCn/(n): an event or situation that can be seen to happen or exist: hiện tượng Violence in society is not a new phenomenon: Nạn bạo lực trong xã hội không còn là một hiện tượng mới. 2. volcano /vOl/keInCu/(n): a mountain that forces hot gas, rocks, ASH, and LAVA (=melted rock) into the air through a hole at the top. Some volcanoes are not immediately dangerous because they are not active and have become dormant. Others will never be dangerous again because they are completely extinct: núi lửa 3. earthquake //E:TkweIk/(n): a sudden shaking movement of the ground: động đất 4. drought /draUt/(n): a long period of time when there is little or no rain and crops die: hạn hán 5. tornado /tc:/neIdCU/(n): a very strong wind that goes quickly around in a circle or FUNNEL: lốc xóay 6. heat wave /hi:t weIv/(n): a continuous period of hot weather: đợt nắng nóng 7. thunderstorm //TVndC stc:m/(n): a heavy storm with THUNDER: bão có sấm sét và thường có mưa to ... - tailieumienphi.vn
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