UNIT 7: TRADE AND TREASURE
1. lottery /’lOtCrI/ noun [count] a game designed to raise money by selling lottery tickets that people buy, hoping that their numbers are chosen by chance in the drawing so that they win a money prize: xổ số
lottery ticket noun [count] vé số
She won a million dollars in the lottery.
2. winnings /’wInINz/ noun [plural] money that you win: tiền thắng cuộc, được bạc.
3. base on /beIs On/ phrasal verb [transitive usually passive] base something on something to use particular ideas or facts to make a decision, do a calculation, or develop a theory: dựa vào, căn cứ vào
The prosecution’s case is based largely on evidence from ex-members of the gang.
base noun [count] a set of ideas, facts, achievements, etc. from which something can develop: căn cứ, cơ sở, nền Income from magazine publishing provides the company with a strong financial base.
4. the one used for emphasizing the only person or thing of a particular type: THE ONLY: duy nhất The one way to succeed is to work hard and live a healthy life:
5. pretty /’prIti/ adverb MAINLY SPOKEN 1 fairly: hơi hơi
My TV’s getting pretty old now. 2 very: rất
The weather is pretty awful, isn’t it?
6. promise /’prOmIs/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to tell someone you will definitely do something: hứa The police chief promised tougher action against young criminals.
promise to do something ⮳Peter wished he’d never promised to help them.
promise noun [count] a statement in which you say that something will definitely happen, or you will definitely do something: lời hứa
promise to ⮳ Audrey remembered her promise to her father that she would work harder. keep a promise: giữ lời hứa
7. original /C’rIdZInCl/ (adj) [only before noun] existing at the beginning of a period or process, before any changes have been made: FIRST: ban đầu, gốc
Do you know who the car’s original owner is?
origin /’OrIdZIn/ noun [count] the place or moment where something begins to exist: nguồn gốc, xuất xứ The origins of the custom are unknown.
8. in the end MAINLY SPOKEN finally, after a period of time or thought: cuối cùng In the end, we decided not to buy it.
—opposite IN THE BEGINNING
9. ending /’endIN/ noun [count] the last part of a story, film or movie, etc: phần kết, đoạn kết Children usually prefer books with a happy ending.
10. earn /E:n/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to receive money for work that you do: kiếm tiền She doesn’t earn much money, but she enjoys the work.
The company earned profits of $22 million in the last year.
11. save /seIv/ verb [transitive] to avoid using something such as money, time, or energy, or use less of it: tiết kiệm, để dành
You can save $100 by buying your tickets before Saturday.
savings /’seIvINz/ [plural] money that you have saved in a bank or invested so that you can use it later: tiền tiết kiệm
Prepared by Mr. Tuan Kiet & Ms. Giang Thanh 1/6
The money for the flight came out of my savings.
12. afford /C’fc:d/ verb [transitive] if you can afford something, you have enough money to be able to pay for it. This word always follows “can,” “could,” or “be able to”: có đủ tiền (để làm gì đó)
We need a bigger house, but we just can’t afford the rent.
affordable /C’fc:dCbl/ (adj) inexpensive enough for ordinary people to afford: rẻ, có thể trả được affordable housing/childcare
13. offer /’OfC(r)/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to let someone know that you are willing to do something for them: đề nghị
offer to do something ⮳ I do think you should have offered to help.
14. lend /lend/ verb (past tense and past participle lent /lent/) [transitive] to give someone something for a short time, expecting that they will give it back to you later. If you lend someone something, they borrow it from you: cho mượn lend someone something ⮳ She lent me her very expensive coat.
lend something to someone ⮳ Joe lent this car to us for the weekend.
15. borrow /’bOrCU/ verb [transitive] to receive and use something that belongs to someone else, and promise to give it back to them later: mượn
Can I borrow your calculator?
borrow something from someone/something ⮳I borrowed a camera from Alex.
16. owe /CU/ verb [transitive] if you owe someone money, you have to give them a particular amount of money because you have bought something from them or borrowed money from them: mắc nợ
owe someone something ⮳ Pam still owes me $5.
owe something to someone ⮳ The companies owe as much as $200 billion to foreign lenders.
17. lined /laInd/ (adj) lined skin has a lot of lines on it, which you get as you become older: WRINKLED: nhăn nheo a deeply lined face
18. bear /beC(r)/ (past tense bore /bc:(r)/; past participle borne /bc:(r)n/) verb [transitive] to have features or qualities that show that something happened in the past: mang, có
He was badly wounded in the war and still bears the scars
19. testimony /’testImCnI/ noun [singular or uncount] evidence that something exists or is true: chứng cớ
be (a) testimony to/of sth ⮳ The latest trade figures are testimony to the failure of this administration’s policies.
20. iron /’aIrn/ noun [count] a device for making clothes flat and smooth, especially after they have been washed, which has a handle and a flat base and is usually electrically heated: bàn ủi
iron verb [intransitive or transitive] to make clothes flat and smooth using an iron: ủi đồ Would you iron this shirt for me?
ironing noun [uncount] clothes which are waiting to be ironed or have just been ironed: đồ cần ủi a huge pile of ironing
21. include /In’klu:d/ verb [transitive] [never progressive] to contain someone or something as a part of something else:
The price includes dinner, bed, and breakfast.
inclusion /In’klu:Zn/ noun [uncount] the action of including someone or something in a group, arrangement, document, etc.: sự gồm cả
With the inclusion of Italy next season, the number of member countries will increase to six.
22. generation /,dxZenC`reISn/ noun [count] all the people of about the same age within a particular family (or within a society): thế hệ
generation of ⮳ The novel is about several generations of an immigrant family.
the generation gap: the difference in opinions or behavior between older and younger people which often causes problems between them: khoảng cách thế hệ.
generational (adj) generational differences
23. initial /I’nISl/ adj [only before noun] happening at the beginning of a process, or when you first see or hear about something: ban đầu
At the initial stage of the project not everyone had access to a computer. initially /I’nISlI/ (adv) ORIGINALLY
Initially she worked for us as an intern.
24. charge /tSa:dZ/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to ask an amount of money for something, especially a service or activity: đòi (một số tiền) như giá phải trả
I’m not going there again, they charged (me) £ 1 for a cup of coffee
charge noun [count or uncount] the amount of money that you have to pay for something, especially for an activity or service: giá tiền phải trả
admission charge: tiền vào cửa
25. bundle /’bVndl/ noun [count] a number of things that have been tied together, especially so that you can carry them easily: bó, bọc
a bundle of ⮳ a bundle of clean clothes
bundle or bundle up [transitive] to put things into groups and wrap or tie them together: buộc, bó Their clothes were bundled into plastic bags.
26. inflation /In’fleISn/ noun [uncount] an economic process in which prices increase so that money becomes less valuable: nạn lạm phát
Your pension is protected against inflation.
inflate /In’fleIt / verb[transitive] to make a number or price higher than it should be: gây lạm phát
27. rise /raIz/ (past tense rose; past participle risen) verb [intransitive] to increase in size, amount, quality, or strength: tăng lên
Salaries will continue to rise in line with inflation.
rise in price/value ⮳ Gas rose in price as the war continued.
rise noun [count] an increase in size, amount, quality, or strength: sự tăng rise in ⮳ The threat of a sudden rise in oil prices
28. recall /rI’kc:l/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to remember something: nhớ recall (that)⮳ I seem to recall that you said you would do that yesterday. recall noun [uncount] the ability to remember something: trí nhớ
She has almost total recall of her conversations with the President.
29. commence /kC’ments/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to begin something: bắt đầu(cái gì) We will commence building work in August of next year.
commencement /kC’mentsmCnt/ noun
1 [count or uncount] the beginning of something: sự bắt đầu
2 [count] a ceremony at which students formally receive their degrees: lễ phát bằng
30. accumulate /C’kju:mjUleIt/ verb
1 [transitive] to get more and more of something over a period of time: tích lũy Over the years, I had accumulated hundreds of books.
2 [intransitive] to increase in quantity over a period of time: tăng lên Medical evidence for the benefits of the procedure has been accumulating.
accumulation /C,kju:mjU’leISn/ noun [count or uncount] the process by which something increases in amount or is collected together over time: sự tích lũy
Slow accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries.
31. frugal /’fru:gl/ (adj) spending very little money and only on things that are really necessary: căn cơ, tiết kiệm frugality /fru:’gAlCtI/ noun [uncount]
32. donate /dCU’neIt/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to give something such as money or goods to an organization, especially to a school, hospital, political party, or CHARITY: hiến tặng
donate something to somebody/something ⮳ Would you be willing to donate some of your time to a good cause?
donation /dCU’neISn/ noun [uncount] the act of giving money or goods to an organization: sự hiến tặng The bank has promised a donation of $24 million toward the disaster fund.
Prepared by Mr. Tuan Kiet & Ms. Giang Thanh 3/6
33. article /’a:tIkl/ noun [count] a piece of writing about a particular subject that is published in a newspaper or magazine:
article on/about something ⮳ We ran an article about her in our magazine.
34. honor /’OnC(r)/ verb [transitive] to show your respect or admiration for someone, especially by giving them a prize or title, or by praising them publicly: kính trọng, tôn vinh
She will be honored for her work in promoting friendship between the two countries.
honor noun [uncount] the respect that people have for someone who achieves something great, who is very powerful, or who behaves in a way that is morally right: thanh danh, danh dự
Shame and honor were what motivated people.
honorable /’OnCrCbl/ (adj) an honorable person is someone who deserves respect because they behave according to high moral standards: danh giá, đáng kính
Your father was an honorable man.
35. demonstrate /’demCnstreIt/ verb [transitive] to show clearly that something is true or that it exists: chứng minh demonstrate that ⮳ The study demonstrates that cigarette advertising does encourage children to smoke. demonstration /,demCn’streISn / noun [count or uncount]
36. -spoken /-’spCUkCn/ (suffix) kết hợp với một số trạng từ để tạo thành tính từ miêu tả cách một người nào đó nói chuyện
quiet-spoken ⮳ nói chuyện nhỏ nhẹ
37. appreciate /C’pri:SIeIt/ verb [transitive never progressive] to recognize the good or special qualities of a person, place, or thing: đánh giá cao, trân trọng
She feels that her family doesn’t really appreciate her. appreciation /C,pri:SI’eISn/ noun [singular or uncount] An appreciation of the poet’s work.
38. inspire /In’spaIr/ verb [transitive] to give someone the enthusiasm to do or create something: thúc đẩy, truyền cảm hứng
inspire someone to do something ⮳ We use interactive displays to inspire children to read and write for pleasure. inspiration /,InspI’reISn/ noun [count or uncou] a sudden feeling of enthusiasm or a new idea that helps you to do or create something: cảm hứng
Dreams are a rich source of inspiration for some writers.
39. contribute /’kOntrIbju:t/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to give something, especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people: đóng góp
contribute something to/toward something ⮳ He promised to contribute $5,000 toward the cost of the lawsuit. contribution /,kOntrI’bju:Sn/ noun [count] something that you do that helps to achieve something or to make it successful: đóng góp
make a contribution ⮳ Community police have made a very positive contribution to crime prevention.
40. double /’dVbl/ verb [intransitive] to become twice as big, twice as much, or twice as many: gấp đôi The number of people out of work has doubled in the last five years.
double in size/amount/price etc. ⮳Their house has doubled in value since they bought it. double (adj) containing or consisting of twice as much of something as normal: gấp đôi double chocolate chip cookies
6 LANGUAGE IN ACTION: TRANSACTIONS
41. check /tSek/ [count] AMERICAN a piece of paper that you are given in a restaurant showing you how much money you owe. Another word for this is bill, which is the usual British word: hóa đơn thanh toán
How much is the check?
42. treat /trIt/ noun [singular] an occasion when you pay for something for someone else: sự thết đãi This is my treat.
treat verb [transitive] to behave toward someone in a particular way: đối đãi, cư xử You should treat others politely.
43. cash /kAS/ verb [transitive] to exchange a check for its value in bills and coins: đổi ra tiền mặt Can I cash a check at the front desk?
cash noun [uncount] money in the form of bills and coins: tiền mặt in cash ⮳ Do you want to pay in cash or by credit card?
44. identification /aI,dentIfI’keISn/ noun [uncount] something that proves who you are, especially a document with your name and a photograph = ID: giấy chứng minh
Can you show me some identification?
45. trade /treId/ verb [intransitive] to buy or sell goods or services: buôn bán, kinh doanh trade with ⮳ We need to trade with Eastern Europe more.
trade noun [uncount] the activities of buying and selling goods or services: buôn bán, thương mại trade with ⮳ Spain wants to develop its trade with the Philippines.
46. barter /’bo:tC(r)/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to exchange goods or services for other goods or services instead of using money: đổi hàng lấy hàng
They got what they needed by bartering their livestock.
barter /’bo:tC(r)/ noun [uncount] the system of paying for goods or services with other goods or services instead of using money: sự trao đổi hàng hóa
a barter economy
47. a little (bit) less: ít hơn một chút
I wish you’d do a bit less talking and a bit more work.
48. agree /C’gri:/ verb [not usually progressive] [intransitive or transitive] to have the same opinion as someone else: đồng ý
agree with somebody about something ⮳ I agree with my mother about most things. agree to do something ⮳ The school agreed to send the students on the field trip. agree (that) ⮳ We all agree that we should celebrate this event.
agree on/about ⮳ The committee members agreed on the need for more information.
agree to a request/ suggestion/ proposal ⮳ We have agreed to their request for a full investigation. agreement /C’gri:mCnt/ noun [count or uncount] the situation when people have the same opinion or have made the same decision about something: sự đồng ý, đồng tình
agreeable /C’gri:Cbl/ ~ (to sth) adj to be willing to do or accept something: sẵn sàng đồng ý, tán thành.
49. advance /Cd’vAns/ noun [count or uncount] progress or an instance of progress in science, technology, human knowledge, etc.:sự tiến bộ
In spite of all its advances, medical science still knows little about the brain.
in advance if you do something in advance, you do it in preparation for a particular time or event in the future: trước (về thời gian)
Details of the meeting had been circulated well in advance.
50. in return (for something) as payment or in exchange for something, or as a way of thanking someone for something: đáp lại
I bought him a drink in return for his help.
51. get something over with or get something over : to do something or allow something to happen, because you want it to be finished or you want to start something else: hoàn thành cái gì
I wanted to get the interview over with as quickly as possible.
52. option /’OpSn/ noun [count] something that you can choose in a particular situation: lựa chọn option for ⮳ have three different options for financing the house.
optional /’OpSCnl/ (adj) something that is optional is available or possible if you want it, but you do not have to have it or do it: tự chọn, không bắt buộc
The price includes hotel and meals – entertainment is optional.
53. favor /’feIvC/ noun [count] something that you do for someone in order to help them: sự giúp đỡ do someone a favor: giúp đỡ ai ⮳ Could you do me a small favor?
Prepared by Mr. Tuan Kiet & Ms. Giang Thanh 5/6