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Talk a Lot How to Use Connected Sentence Cards – Sound Connections Demo This pie chart shows the percentages of each kind of connection: cv – 10% vv – 12% cc – 48% vc – 30% As they do the activity, students will find the following outcomes: a) vowel sound to consonant sound (vc) and b) consonant sound to vowel sound (cv) If either of these connections occurs, the sounds will flow well together. For example: LDÇwflåKáDÇÉéL= vowel sound to consonant sound (vc) LDïflípK]L= consonant sound to vowel sound (cv) This is because in rapid speech the English tongue is able to easily produce a smooth transition between consonant and vowel sounds, and vice versa. This technique of connected speech is called linking. c) vowel sound to vowel sound (vv) If you see this kind of connection, there will be a new sound added – LàL, LïL, or LêL. For example: LDÇÉfKòáKà]åÇL= = vowel sound to vowel sound (vv)= the connecting sound is LàL LDäáWKà]rKïfòL= = vowel sound to vowel sound (vv) the connecting sound is LïL LDëfKå]Kã]KêflåL= = vowel sound to vowel sound (vv) the connecting sound is LêL Talk a Lot Elementary © English Banana.com 3.7 Talk a Lot How to Use Connected Sentence Cards – Sound Connections Demo This is because in rapid speech the English tongue can’t cope with two vowels flowing together, so we have to introduce a consonant sound between them, making the connection just like either (vc) or (cv) (see above). This technique of connected speech, where we add a new sound, is called intrusion. a) consonant sound to consonant sound (cc) If you see this kind of connection, you should stop and think about how the sounds go together. It’s very common in rapid speech for consonant sounds not to flow well together. Say the words on the cards together and listen to the connecting sounds. It’s likely that a sound will be missing at the end of the first word, especially if that sound is LíL, or LÇL. This technique of connected speech, where a sound disappears, is called elision. For example: LDãìëDêÉåíL= = LíL at the end of the first word disappears to make the transition between the two words easier to say (elision) LÇ~råDä]rKÇ]DÑfÑKíáWåL= = LÇL at the end of the first word disappears to make the transition between the two words easier to say (elision) In addition to this, the sound that disappears may be replaced by a glottal stop, which is a very short pause. Or the sound at the end of the first word may change to make the next sound – at the beginning of the next word – easier to say, for example LÏL at the end of “-ing” words often changes to LåL. In other words, we “drop” the “g”. This technique of connected speech, where a sound changes, is called assimilation. LDä]rDľ\KÇwf\DÜflKê]L= = LíL at the end of the first word is replaced by a glottal stop L\L to make the transition between the two words easier to say (glottal stops)= LDê~fKífåKa]L= = LÏL at the end of the first word changes to LåL to make the transition between the two words easier to say (assimilation) LflãDîôKä]åKí~fåòL= = LåL at the end of the first word changes to LãL to make the transition between the two words easier to say (assimilation) If two of the same consonant sounds meet, the first sound will become redundant and disappear, for example: Talk a Lot Elementary © English Banana.com 3.8 Talk a Lot How to Use Connected Sentence Cards – Sound Connections Demo Lê]rDãôåKífDâflKã]KÇáL= = LâL meets LâL so the first sound disappears (elision) LDâäôKëfDâflKã]KÇáWòL = LâL meets LâL so the first sound disappears (elision) LDÑêÉåDëlWL= = LëL meets LëL so the first sound (along with LÇL) disappears (elision) Sometimes, however, the consonant-consonant (cc) sounds will flow together well. Students will see this very clearly if the consonant sound at the end of the first word is LëL or LòL (see examples below). Why does this happen? Because after making these sounds, your mouth and tongue are in a fairly neutral position and ready to make any sound. Try saying LëL and LòL separately now. Where is your tongue? Where are you lips? In what position does your mouth end up after saying each sound? Now try saying the words below together. Compare this to saying LíL, or any word with LíL at the end. After saying LíL your tongue is right behind your teeth, fully committed to the sound, and in a bad starting position to make the next sound. 3 LfíëDâìWäL= = LëL meets LâL and they flow together smoothly (linking) 3 LDîôKä]åKí~fåòDÇÉfL= = LòL meets LÇL and they flow together smoothly (linking) ! LDÇ]råDä~fâL= = LíL meets LäL and they don’t flow together smoothly, so LíL is automatically omitted by the speaker (elision)= Having said all of this, sometimes there will be no connection between the two sounds because of the natural break, or pause, provided by a punctuation mark, such as a dash – , semi-colon ; , or comma , , for example: LDÄflâKëÉíKàìWäL= = here two consonant sounds meet – LíL=and LàL – but there is a natural break in the speech provided by the comma, so LíL remains and elision doesn’t happen Talk a Lot Elementary © English Banana.com 3.9 Talk a Lot How to Use Connected Sentence Cards – Sound Connections Demo Students should try using the connected sentence cards to explore the different sound connections between pairs of words, and how connected speech techniques come into play each time. They could also try this method with any sentence – one that they have written themselves, or one from a newspaper, book, or magazine, using the template below to help them. The outcomes will be generally the same as those shown above. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Connecting Sounds (Activity Template) 1. Choose (or write) a sentence: _________________________________________ 2. Count the no. of words in the sentence: ______ 3. Count the no. of connections between words in the sentence: ______ 4. Count each kind of connection between words, and write down the connecting sounds for (vv) and (cc) connections, using the IPA: # vowel-consonant (vc) OK 3 # consonant-vowel (cv) OK 3 # vowel-vowel (vv) Possible techniques of connected speech: (No elision, intrusion, assimilation, etc. needs to take place, because the words flow together well) • intrusion # consonant-consonant (cc) • elision • glottal stops • assimilation Total: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Let’s look at a complete sentence from Unit 2 of Talk a Lot Elementary Book 3, on the topic of “Films” (from which all of the examples in this demo also come): LDÇÉfKòáKà]åK]DÄlfKÑêÉåÇK]KÖ]rKïfåKí]DïflípK] ê]rDãôåKífDâflKã]KÇáKà]\Ka]DëfKå]Kã]KêflãDîôKä]åKí~fåòDÇÉfL= Talk a Lot Elementary © English Banana.com 3.10 Talk a Lot How to Use Connected Sentence Cards – Sound Connections Demo Here is a completed activity template as an example: Connecting Sounds (Activity Template) 1. Choose (or write) a sentence: _____________(see above)___________________ 2. Count the no. of words in the sentence: __17__ 3. Count the no. of connections between words in the sentence: __16__ 4. Count each kind of connection between words, and write down the connecting sounds for (vv) and (cc) connections, using the IPA: # vowel-consonant (vc) # consonant-vowel (cv) # vowel-vowel (vv) Possible techniques of connected speech: • intrusion # consonant-consonant (cc) • elision • glottal stops • assimilation Total: 5 (No elision, intrusion, assimilation, etc. needs to 2 OK 3 take place, because the words flow together well) 3 “Daisy and” – LáL to L]L – connecting sound: LàL “comedy at” – LáL to L]L – connecting sound: LàL “cinema on” – L]L to LflL – connecting sound: LêL 6 “and her” – LÇL to LÜL – LÇL and LÜL both disappear (elision) “going to” – LÏL to LíL – LÏL changes to LåL (assimilation) “romantic comedy” – LâL to LâL – same sounds: the first LâL disappears (elision) “at the” – LíL to LaL – LíL disappears (elision) “on Valentine’s” – LåL to LîL – LåL changes to LãL (assimilation) “Valentine’s Day” – LòL to LÇL – LòL enables a 16 smooth transition (no elision, etc. takes place) Another helpful technique is to study and learn connections that occur often, in phrases that are common in spoken English – and particularly in phrases that comprise unstressed function words. For example: L]\Ka]L= = LíL at the end of the first word disappears to make the transition between the two words easier to say (elision), and is replaced by a glottal stop. LÖ]rKïfåKí]L= = when used as a future form, these three syllables are said quickly because they are unstressed function words. LÏL at the end of the first word changes to LåL to make the transition between the two words easier to say (assimilation). Often this very common phrase is shortened even further to “gunna”: LÖ¾åK]L. This enables the speaker to get even more quickly to the point of what they’re trying to say, i.e. the active verb: “I’m gunna buy...” etc. Talk a Lot Elementary © English Banana.com 3.11 ... - tailieumienphi.vn