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Grammar – Vocabulary GRAMMAR – VOCABULARY.......................................................................................................................................1 1. SENTENCES..............................................................................................................................................................4 1.1 Sentence patterns ...............................................................................................................................4 1.1.1 Subject.....................................................................................................................................4 1.1.2 Object......................................................................................................................................4 1.1.3 Complement ...........................................................................................................................5 1.2 Subordinate clause...............................................................................................................................5 1.2.1 Reduced clause ......................................................................................................................5 1.3 Reversion – Inversion – đảo ngữ: đảo động từ chính / đảo trợ động từ .............................................5 2. VERBS.......................................................................................................................................................................6 2.1 Tenses .................................................................................................................................................6 2.1.1 Past .........................................................................................................................................6 2.1.2 Present ...................................................................................................................................6 2.1.3 Future .....................................................................................................................................6 2.2 Verb patterns........................................................................................................................................7 2.2.1 Intransitive V ...........................................................................................................................7 2.2.2 Linking verbs: S + Linking V + C (noun / adj / adv)..................................................................7 2.2.3 Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) ................................................................................................8 2.2.4 Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) + IO (sth)..................................................................................9 2.2.5 Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) + Bare Inf. ®causative form .................................................10 2.2.6 Transitive V: S + Vt + DO (sb) + V-ing (present participle) ®V2 đang tiếp tiễn....................10 2.2.7 Perception verbs: S + Vt + DO (sb) + Gerund / Bare inf........................................................10 2.2.8 Transitive V: S + Vt + O (sb/sth) + (as / to be) + OC (complement).......................................10 2.2.9 S + V + (not) + Gerund (V-ing) ®hòan thành công việc, đã qua, passive ............................12 2.2.10 S + expression + Gerund (V-ing).........................................................................................13 2.2.11 S + V + to + V......................................................................................................................14 2.2.12 S + V + to-inf / V-ing ............................................................................................................15 2.2.13 Series of V...........................................................................................................................16 2.3 Modal verbs – động từ hình thái ........................................................................................................17 2.4 Condition............................................................................................................................................18 2.4.1 Tense ...................................................................................................................................18 2.4.2 Conditional conjunction .........................................................................................................18 2.4.3 Unreal expression .................................................................................................................19 2.4.4 To Wish .................................................................................................................................19 2.5 Active - Passive voice .......................................................................................................................20 2.5.1 Active form.............................................................................................................................20 2.5.2 Passive form .........................................................................................................................20 2.6 Reported speech................................................................................................................................21 2.7 Verb + prepositions ...........................................................................................................................22 2.8 Verbal phrases ..................................................................................................................................23 2.8.1 Clichés ..................................................................................................................................25 3. NOUNS ....................................................................................................................................................................25 3.1 Nouns agree with V............................................................................................................................25 3.2 Countable and uncountable nouns.....................................................................................................26 3.2.1 countable nouns ....................................................................................................................26 3.2.2 Uncountable nouns ...............................................................................................................26 3.2.3 Countable nouns ...................................................................................................................27 3.2.4 Uncountable nouns ...............................................................................................................27 /storage/tailieu/files/source/20100706/thuyhuong282/toeflgrammar1_5086.doc 1 3.2.5 Count and noncount noun meanings.....................................................................................27 3.2.6 Collective nouns + singular / plural Verbs..............................................................................28 3.2.7 Patterns ................................................................................................................................28 3.2.8 Noun phrase = Adv + Adj + Noun.........................................................................................28 3.2.9 Noun clauses ........................................................................................................................29 3.2.10 Article...................................................................................................................................29 3.3 N + Verb ............................................................................................................................................29 3.4 Preposition ........................................................................................................................................30 3.4.1 Pronouns ..............................................................................................................................30 3.4.2 Noun phrases........................................................................................................................30 3.4.3 N – Idioms..............................................................................................................................31 4. ADJECTIVES ..........................................................................................................................................................32 4.1 Position of adj. in clause ....................................................................................................................32 4.2 Possition of adj in phrase: OPSHACOM.............................................................................................32 4.3 Patterns .............................................................................................................................................32 4.3.1 Sentences .............................................................................................................................32 4.3.2 Adjective clause.....................................................................................................................33 4.4 Comparison........................................................................................................................................33 4.4.1 Equal comparision ................................................................................................................33 4.4.2 Comparative .........................................................................................................................34 4.4.3 Supperlative...........................................................................................................................34 4.5 Vocabulary ........................................................................................................................................34 4.5.1 Descriptive adj ......................................................................................................................34 4.5.2 Limiting adj.............................................................................................................................34 4.5.3 Irregular comparatives and supperatives ..............................................................................35 4.6 Preposition.........................................................................................................................................36 5. ADVERBS ...............................................................................................................................................................37 5.1 Definition ...........................................................................................................................................37 5.2 Adverbial phrases = MPT = Manner + Place + Time..........................................................................37 5.3 Building words....................................................................................................................................37 5.4 Vocabulary ........................................................................................................................................37 5.4.1 Frequency..............................................................................................................................37 5.4.2 Degree...................................................................................................................................38 5.4.3 Quality/manner – tính chất, cách thức ..................................................................................38 5.4.4 Place......................................................................................................................................38 5.4.5 Time - thời gian .....................................................................................................................39 5.4.6 Purpose – mục đích ..............................................................................................................39 5.4.7 Reason – nguyên nhân .........................................................................................................39 5.4.8 Concession – nhượng bộ ......................................................................................................39 5.4.9 Contrast – đối lập .................................................................................................................39 5.4.10 Vocabulary ..........................................................................................................................39 6. CONJUNCTIONS.....................................................................................................................................................40 6.1 Vocabulary.........................................................................................................................................40 6.1.1 Coordinating conjunction ......................................................................................................40 6.1.2 Subordinating conjunction ....................................................................................................40 7. PREPOSITIONS.......................................................................................................................................................42 7.1 Meaning..............................................................................................................................................42 7.2 Phrases..............................................................................................................................................43 LISTENING.................................................................................................................................................................47 TOEFL.........................................................................................................................................................................48 8. CONFUSED WORDS...............................................................................................................................................48 /storage/tailieu/files/source/20100706/thuyhuong282/toeflgrammar1_5086.doc 2 9. NUMBERS...............................................................................................................................................................51 9.1 Ordinal numbers – số thứ tự ..............................................................................................................51 9.2 Cardinal number – số đếm ................................................................................................................51 9.3 Time, .................................................................................................................................................51 9.4 Age ....................................................................................................................................................52 9.5 Measurement – units .........................................................................................................................52 9.6 Comparative ......................................................................................................................................53 9.7 Maths .................................................................................................................................................53 10. EXPRESSIONS - PHRASES .................................................................................................................................53 /storage/tailieu/files/source/20100706/thuyhuong282/toeflgrammar1_5086.doc 3 1. SENTENCES Main clause + subordinate clause 1.1 Sentence patterns Introductory modifier N, Adj, Adv, Adv Prep. + V-ing + O, V-ing + O, V-ed + O, To – inf + O, Adverbial clause, S Adv V O Adv + definiting relative clause V O + , Appositive (N phrase), V O non-definite relative clause (V-ing, V-ed…) , V O V–ing V O + O V–ed + V O Main clause Main clause , V-ing + O and V + O ,…, and V + O Adverbial clause ®Adv modifies clause ®Adv modifies V ®active ®passive ®purpose • SPECIAL It / there + be + adj + to-inf/ that + clause. It / there + be + N + adj - clause. It is likely that + clause That + clause + V + O It is the first (sb) to – inf (Sb) + first + V-ed It was 1973 that + clause • It was I/she/he/we/they/you (=subject compplement) who … It is + to be + pp + by 2010 ®future invention It was + to be + pp + by 1995 ®past invention Ex. Astronomer now believe them. To influence farmers the most. The very mistakes they make show that + clause. The committee members resented the president’s not Oinforming them of meeting. S V adj N N O The American dancer Maria Tellchief first became prominet in Europe. 1.1.1 Subject Noun, N phrase, N clause, Pronoun, Gerund, Ex. That – clause + V + O 1.1.2 Object DO = sth Patern: IO = sb S + tV + IO (sb) + DO (sth) S + tV + DO (sth) + prep. + IO (sb) /storage/tailieu/files/source/20100706/thuyhuong282/toeflgrammar1_5086.doc 4 1.1.3 Complement N, Adj. Pattern: S + Linking V + complement ( modify S) Complement : classification (norminal), description (adjectival), location time (adverbial). 1.2 Subordinate clause Noun clause Adjective clause Adverbial clause Reduced adj-clause; appositive. 1.2.1 Reduced clause If, unless, whether, although, though Though When, after, before, since, while Once, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, as While V-ing ®Active V- ed ®Passive adj Main clause (S+V+O) Ex. Take the medicine as prescribed The man took the medicine as having to. After / if permitted, the student will be absent from class. 1.3 Reversion – Inversion – đảo ngữ: đảo động từ chính / đảo trợ động từ • Pattern: adv + aux/defective V + S – Strong form • Weak form: emphasize Ex. Money you shall have if you go and get me a magazine. Negative word: not only, not until, not once, at no tim, by no mean, nowhere, never, seldom, rarely, scarely, hardly, no longer, barely, no sooner, nowhere, not, at no time, nore, neither, on no account, by no means, little, evenless, so, such Ex. Never will I smoke again. Ex. In no circumstances must a soldier leave his cambat position. = A soldier must not leave his cambat position in any circumstances . Only, so, such…: only after, only once, only them, only by chance , only today, only yesterday, only on rare occational, only with dificulty, only by luck Ex. So beautiful is she that… = such a beautiful girl is she that… Only + subordinate clause, + main clause Preposition phrase + V + S: in front of, in the corner of, in, outside… đảo động từ Ex. On the desk lies a spider Here / there + V + S ®chủ từ giả đảo động từ Ex. Here comes my taxi! Except: Here you are! If clause: unreal in the past/present; real in the present Ex. Had I met you 10 years ago, I wouldn’t have married her. Were I you, I would marry Should she come, I’ll tell. Did you study har, you might pass the exam. Comparision đảo động từ Ex. Helium is not inflamable, and is therefore safer than hydrogen. New York City’s Central Park is nearly twice as large as is the second smallest country, Monaco. {long subject} /storage/tailieu/files/source/20100706/thuyhuong282/toeflgrammar1_5086.doc 5 ... - tailieumienphi.vn