UNIT 11: DOWN TO EARTH
1. garden /’go:(r)dn/ noun [count] an area of land next to or near a house that is used for growing flowers or vegetables: vườn
garden verb [intransitive] to take care of a garden and its plants: làm vườn She spends most weekends gardening.
2. research /rI’sE:tS/ noun [uncount] the detailed study of something in order to discover new facts, especially in a university or scientific institution: sự nghiên cứu
research into: research into the causes of schizophrenia
research on: There is clearly a need for further research on this topic.
research /rI’sE:tS/ verb [transitive] to make a detailed study of something in order to discover new facts: nghiên cứu
They have been researching the effects of the drug on mice.
3. contact /’kOntAkt/ noun [count or uncount] communication between people, countries, or organizations either by talking or writing: giao tiếp, liên lạc
contact between: There has been no direct contact between the two sides in the dispute. contact with: Jury members must avoid contact with the defendants and their families. lose contact: mất liên lạc: I have lost contact with most of my college friends. get/keep/stay in contact: giữ liên lạc: Do you and Jo still keep in contact?
contact /’kOntAkt/ verb [transitive] to write to someone or talk to them on the telephone: liên lạc, tiếp xúc You can always contact me at my home number.
4. benefit /’benIfIt/ noun
1 [count usually plural] extra money or other advantages that you get in addition to your salary from your employer as part of your job: phúc lợi
The benefits include medical insurance and a company car.
2 [count or uncount] an advantage you get from a situation: lợi ích The new sports facility will bring lasting benefit to the community.
benefit (present participle benefiting or benefitting; past tense and past participle benefited or benefitted) verb [intransitive] to get help or an advantage from something: nhận được lợi ích
benefit from: Patients have benefited greatly from this treatment.
beneficial /,benI’fISl/ (adj) something that is beneficial has a good effect or influence on someone or something: có lợi, hữu ích
beneficial to: a discovery that should prove beneficial to many AIDS patients — opposite HARMFUL
5. prevent /prI’vent/ verb [transitive] to stop someone / something from doing something / happening: ngăn chặn prevent something (from) happening: Rubber seals are fitted to prevent the gas from escaping.
prevent someone (from) doing something: The owner is prevented by law from making any major changes. prevention /prI’ventSn/ noun [uncount] the act of preventing something or things that people do in order to prevent something: sự ngăn chặn
prevention of: The study is working toward the prevention of cancer.
preventable /prI’ventCbl/ (adj) capable of being prevented: có thể ngăn chặn preventable accidents
6. instinctive /In’stINktIv/ (adj) done without thinking, because of a natural tendency or ability: theo bản năng His reaction was purely instinctive.
instinct /’InstINkt/ noun [count or uncount] a natural tendency to behave in a particular way that people and animals are born with and that they obey without knowing why: bản năng
the instinct of ducklings to follow their mother
7. solid /’sOlId/ (adj) that you can rely on, having a strong basis: có thể tin cậy được, có cơ sở Would the evidence be solid enough to convince a jury?
solidity /sC’lIdCtI/ noun [uncount] the quality of being reliable: sự vững chắc, đáng tin
8. effect /I’fekt/ noun [count or uncount] a change that is produced in one person or thing by another: tác động, ảnh hưởng
effect on/upon: Scientists are studying the chemical’s effect on the environment.
effect /I’fekt/ verb [transitive] FORMAL to make something happen: CARRY OUT: thực hiện If correctly administered, such drugs can effect radical cures.
9. mention /’mentSn/ verb [transitive] to say something during a conversation, but not discuss it much or give many details: nói đến, đề cập đến
mention something to someone: I’ll mention it to her when I see her tomorrow. mention that: Did I mention that I’ve got a new job?
mention /’mentSn/ noun [singular or uncount] the act of referring to someone or something in speech or writing: sự đề cập đến
There’s no mention of any such costs in the contract.
10. view /vju:/ noun [count or uncount] the ability to see something from a particular place: tầm nhìn view of: We had a fantastic view of the mountains from our room.
come into view (=become able to be seen): The castle came into view as we turned the corner. view verb [transitive] to look at or watch something: nhìn, quan sát
More than 20,000 people viewed her casket at the convention center.
11. focus /’fCUkCs/ noun [singular or uncount] particular attention paid to something: mối quan tâm, sự tập trung focus on: I’d like to see more focus on economic policy.
focus (present participle focusing or focussing; past tense and past participle focused or focussed) verb [intransitive or transitive] to concentrate on something and pay particular attention to it: tập trung (vào cái gì) focus on/upon: We will focus upon three main topics.
12. stay /steI/ noun [count] [usually singular] a limited period of time that you live somewhere: thời gian ở lại I hope you enjoyed your stay with us.
stay verb [intransitive] to remain in a particular place: ở lại, lưu lại Stay right here, please.
13. complain /kCm’pleIn/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to say that you are not satisfied with something: than phiền complain (that): She complained that she never had any time to herself.
complain about: What are you complaining about?
complaint /kCm’pleInt/ noun [count or uncount] a written or spoken statement in which someone says they are not satisfied with something: sự than phiền
complaint about: Customers lodged a formal complaint about the way they were treated. complaint that: The county has received complaints that the building is not safe.
14. oceanographer /,CUSC’nOgrCfC(r)/ noun [count] someone who does the scientific study of the oceans: nhà hải dương học
oceanography /,CUSC’nOgrCfI/ noun [uncount] the scientific study of the oceans: hải dương học oceanographic /,CUSCnC’grAfIk/ adj
15. athletic /AT’letIk/ (adj) relating to ATHLETES or ATHLETICS: (thuộc) điền kinh, (thuộc) thể thao
athlete /AT’li:t/ noun [count] someone who is good at sports, and takes part in sports competitions: vận động viên (điền kinh, thể dục thể thao)
16. bathtub /’bATtVb/ noun [count] a long deep container that you fill with water and wash yourself in. British usually bath: bồn tắm
17. beachcomber /’bi:tS,kCUmC(r)/ noun [count] someone who searches a beach looking for shells and valuable or interesting things: người không có nghề thường xuyên, sinh sống bằng cách bán bất cứ thứ gì kiếm được trên bờ biền
18. current /’kVrCnt/ noun [count] the movement of water in the sea or a river; the movement of air in a particular direction: dòng nước, luồng không khí
Strong currents and winds swept their boat out to sea.
current /’kVrCnt/(adj) [usually before noun] happening or existing now: hiện hành, đang lưu hành Production is likely to remain at current levels.
19. study* /’stVdI/ verb [transitive] to read or look at something very carefully: nghiên cứu I have studied various maps of the area.
20. intense /In’tents/ (adj) very great or extreme: mạnh, dữ dội The pain was intense.
He seemed to dislike me intensely.
intensify /In’tensIfaI/ verb [intransitive or transitive] if something intensifies, or you intensify it, it becomes greater, stronger, or more extreme: mạnh hơn, tăng cường
More weapons arrived in the area, and fighting intensified soon afterward. intensification /In,tensIfI’keISn/ noun [singular or uncount]
21. satellite /’sAtlaIt/ noun [count] an object that is sent into space to travel around the Earth in order to receive and send information: vệ tinh
a communications satellite: vệ tinh liên lạc
22. old-fashioned /,CUld’fASnd/ (adj) no longer modern or fashionable: cũ, không hợp thời trang Blake was carrying an old-fashioned leather briefcase.
23. random /’rAndCm/ (adj) chosen or happening without any particular method, pattern, or purpose: ngẫu nhiên, tùy tiện The computer will generate apparently random numbers.
at random: open a book at random: mở đại ra một trang sách randomly adverb
randomly selected randomness noun [uncount]
24. junk /dXZVNk/ noun [uncount] old or broken things: đồ tạp nhạp bỏ đi You should get rid of all that junk in your garage.
25. wash up phrasal verb [intransitive or transitive] if the ocean washes something up somewhere, it carries it and leaves it there: cuốn, đưa vào bờ, dạt vào bờ
Some of the oil has washed up on a neighboring island.
26. swap /swOp/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to give something to someone in exchange for something else: TRADE: trao đổi, đổi chác
swap something for something: She has a job she wouldn’t want to swap for a million dollars.
swap /swOp/ noun [singular] INFORMAL the process of giving one thing in exchange for another: sự trao đổi, sự đổi chác
The hostages were released as part of a swap for two spies.
swap meet noun [count] AMERICAN INFORMAL an informal event at which people can exchange or sell things: họp chợ
There’s a swap meet in the parking lot downtown every Saturday afternoon.
27. investigate /In’vestIgeIt/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to try to find out the facts about something in order to learn the truth about it: điều tra
All complaints from our customers are investigated quickly and efficiently.
investigation /In,vestI’geISn/ noun [count or uncount] the process of trying to find out all the details or facts about something in order to learn who or what caused it or how it happened: sự điều tra
investigation of/into: The investigation into the crash of Flight 003 is now in its second month.
28. total /’tCUtl/ noun [count] the amount you get when you add several numbers or things together: tổng số, toàn bộ total of: A total of 17 students signed up for the course.
in total counting everyone or everything: tổng cộng In total over 100 people attended.
total (adj) [only before noun] with all the numbers or things added together: toàn bộ The total number of votes was over one million.
29. experiment /Ik’sperImCnt/ noun [count] an occasion when you test a new idea, method, or activity to find out what the result will be: sự thử nghiệm
Let’s try an experiment – we’ll only use the Internet on the weekend.
experiment /Ik’sperIment/ verb [intransitive] to try new ideas, methods, or activities in order to find out what results they will have: thử nghiệm
a designer who is not afraid to experiment
experimental /Ik,perI’mentl/ (adj) using new ideas or methods that are not yet proved to be successful every time: thử nghiệm
experimental teaching materials experimentally adverb
The treatment has been used experimentally, but it is too early to tell whether it works.
30. track /træk/ verb [transitive] to follow or find someone or something by looking for evidence that shows where they have gone: theo vết, theo dõi
I tracked him as far as the factory. track noun
1 [count] a path or road with a rough surface: đường đi I walked along a track to the mountain hotel.
2 [count usually plural] a mark that a person, animal, or vehicle leaves on the ground: dấu vết a bear track
31. pattern /’pAtCn/ noun [count] a series of actions or events that together show how things normally happen or are done: kiểu, kiểu mẫu
pattern of: Patterns of employment in urban areas are different from those in the countryside.
32. converge /kCn’vE:dZ/ verb [intransitive] to come from different directions to reach the same point: cùng đổ về, cùng kéo về (một nơi)
converge on: Top diplomats were converging on Washington from all over the world.
33. information /,InfC’meISn/ noun [uncount] knowledge or facts about someone or something: thông tin information that: The police have information that he may now be living in Spain.
information about/on/regarding: We’re not allowed to give you any information about our client’s medical records.
informative /In’fc:mCtIv/ (adj) giving a great deal of information in a helpful way: cung cấp nhiều tin tức an entertaining and informative documentary
inform /In’fc:(r)m/ verb [transitive] to officially tell someone something or give them information about something: thông báo
inform someone of/about something: Please inform us of any changes in your circumstances. inform someone (that): Parents were informed that the school was closing early.
34. data /’deItC/ noun [uncount] facts or information used for making calculations or decisions: số liệu, dữ kiện The analysis was based on data collected in the field.
35. refine /rI’faIn/ verb [transitive] to make some changes to something in order to improve it: cải tiến We’ve refined the system since it was first launched.
refinement /rI’faInmCnt/ noun [count or uncount] a small change that is made to something in order to improve it: cải tiến
The oven has an automatic timer and others refinements.
36. model /’mOdl/ verb[transitive] (present participle modeling or modelling; past tense and past participle modeled or modelled) to produce a simple technical description to show how something such as a process, system, or theory works: mô phỏng
Scientists have used computers to model environmental changes. model /’mOdl/ noun [count]
1 a small copy of something such as a building, vehicle, or machine: mô hình, mẫu
model of: The exhibit included a model of the Golden Gate Bridge made from matchsticks.
2 a person whose job is to appear in magazines or fashion shows wearing clothes or makeup (=colors for the lips and face) for sale, so that people will want to buy them: người mẫu
Ella wants to be a fashion model.
37. ship /SIp/ verb [transitive often passive] to send goods or people somewhere by ship: vẩn chuyển bằng đường biển Toxic waste is shipped from Western Europe to other countries.
shipment /’SIpmCnt/ noun
1 [count] an amount of goods carried on a ship, airplane, train, or truck: hàng gửi
shipment of: The spider was found in a shipment of bananas.
2 [uncount] the process of taking goods from one place to another: việc gửi hàng Some of the equipment was lost during shipment.
38. accurate /’AkjUrCt/ (adj) correct or true in every detail: chính xác We need to get some more accurate information.
accuracy /’AkjUrCsI/ noun [uncount] the quality of being accurate: sự chính xác The accuracy of the reports cannot be checked.
39. result /rI’zVlt/ noun [count or uncount] something that is caused directly by something else that has happened previously: kết quả
result of: He said the incident was the result of a misunderstanding.
as a result (of something) = because of something: Colby died as the result of a heart attack. result /rI’zVlt/ verb
result from [intransitive]: to be caused directly by something that has happened previously: xảy ra bởi The arrests resulted from an anonymous telephone call.
result in [transitive] to cause or produce something: gây ra A sudden change in temperature will inevitably result in rain.
40. amount /C’maUnt/ noun [count] a quantity of something: số lượng amount of: A computer can store a vast amount of information.
41. float /flCUt/ verb [intransitive] to stay on or near the surface of a liquid and not sink: nổi, trôi lềnh bềnh A plastic bag was floating in the water.
42. association /C,sCUsI’eISn/ noun
1 [count] a group of people who have joined together because they have similar interests or goals: hội a professional association of engineers
2 [count] a connection between two things: sự liên kết
association with: Smoking has a close association with lung cancer.
associate /C’sCUsIeIt/ verb [transitive] to form a connection in your mind between different people or things: gắn, kết hợp
associate something with someone/something: The study found that many people associate science with masculinity.
43. subscriber /sCb’skraIbC(r)/ noun [count] a person who gives money regularly to help the work of an organization such as a charity: người góp tiền
subscribe /sCb’skraIb/ verb [intransitive] to pay money regularly to be a member of an organization or to support a charity: quyên vào, góp vào
44. trail /treIl/ noun [count] a path through the countryside, especially one designed for walking for pleasure: đường mòn
The trail led down to the lake.
45. turn /tE:n/ noun [count] a place where a road bends to the right or left: cua quẹo There’s a very sharp turn at the end of the road.
46. hike /haIk/ verb [intransitive] to go for a long walk in the countryside: đi bộ đường dài Soldiers had to hike nearly 20 miles through the swamps.
hike noun [count] a long walk in the countryside: cuộc đi bộ đường dài take a hike: Let’s take a hike tomorrow.
47. come up (to…) (from…) to come from one place to another, especially from the south of a country to the north or from a smaller place to a larger one: đi đến
Why don’t you come up to Scotland for a few days?
48. chimpanzee /,tSImpAn’zi:/ noun [count] an African animal with black or brown fur that lives and hunts in groups. It belongs to the ape family, which is the most similar to humans: con tinh tinh
nguon tai.lieu . vn