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UNIT 5: STUFF OF LIFE 1 READING 1. stuff /stVf/ noun [uncount] the basic material or substance people use for making something: chất liệu What stuff is this jacket made of? Cái áo vét này làm từ chất liệu gì? Real life is the stuff of all good novels: Thực tế cuộc sống là nguyên liệu cho tất cả các cuốn tiểu thuyết hay. the stuff of sth: the most necessary, important or typical part/feature of sth. 2. nickname /’nIkneIm/ verb [transitive] to give someone a nickname: đặt biệt danh (cho ai) They nicknamed her “the Squirrel.” nickname noun [count] an informal name that your friends or family call you that is not your real name: biệt danh 3. trigger /’trIgC/ noun [count] the part of a gun that you move with your finger to make the gun fire: cò súng 4. come a long way to improve a lot or make a lot of progress: có nhiều cải tiến Computers have come a long way since the huge mainframes of the 1950s. 5. worn /wc:n/ [adjective] something that is worn looks old and damaged because it has been used a lot: mòn a pair of worn blue jeans 6. weather /’weDC/ verb [intransitive or transitive] if something weathers or is weathered, its appearance changes because of the effects of wind, rain, etc.: (làm cho cái gì) thay đổI hình dáng, màu sắc vì tác động của nắng, gió, mưa… Wind and sun had weathered his face. weather noun [uncount] the conditions that exist in the atmosphere relating to temperature, PRECIPITATION (=rain, snow, etc.), and other features: thời tiết 7. sentimental /,sentI’mentl/ [adjective] relating to emotions instead of reason: tình cảm I kept the clock purely for sentimental reasons. sentimentally adverb sentimentalize /,sentI’mentlaIz/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to think about or describe something in a way that is emotional and not based on reason: viết, nói hoặc đối xử với ai một cách tình cảm This book sentimentalizes the suffering of the disabled: Cuốn sách bi lụy hóa nỗi đau của người tàn tật sentiment /’sentImCnt/ noun [uncount] feelings of sympathy, sadness, or love that may seem inappropriate: tình cảm 8. autograph /’c:tCgra:f/ verb [transitive] if someone famous autographs a book, photograph, etc., they sign their name on it: viết tên của mình (lên cái gì) He was autographing copies of his latest novel. autograph noun [count] a famous person’s name that they sign for someone else to keep: bút tích My mother got Frank Sinatra’s autograph in the 1970s. 9. estimate /’estImeIt/ verb [transitive] to say what you think an amount or value will be, either by guessing or by using available information to calculate it: ước tính It’s difficult to estimate the cost of making your house safe. estimate /’estImCt/ noun [count] an amount that you guess or calculate using the information available: sự ước lượng, sự ước tính According to official estimates, over 25% of carbon emissions come from the United States. estimated adjective: An estimated 300,000 people came to the demonstration. 10. signature /’sIgnItSC/ noun [count] a person’s name written in a special way by that person: chữ ký 11. associate /’CsCUsIeIt/ noun [count] someone you work with, especially in business: người cộng tác a business associate 12. scratch /skrAtS/ verb 1 [intransitive or transitive] to move something sharp against a hard surface and make a noise: cào xước scratch at: I could hear the dog scratching at the back door. scratch one’s head: suy nghĩ nát óc 2 [transitive] INFORMAL to write something very quickly and carelessly 13. fix /fIxxks/ verb [transitive] to repair something: sửa Jessica fixed my watch. have/get something fixed: I have to get my car fixed. 14. right /raIt/ [adverb] 1 1 exactly: ngay, thẳng The wind was right in our faces: Gió thổi thẳng vào mặt chúng ta 2 immediately: ngay I must answer that phone, but I’ll be right back: Tôi sẽ trả lời điện thọai nhưng tôi sẽ trở lại ngay right away: ngay tức khắc I want it typed right away, please. 3 correctly or accurately: You did it right the first time. 4 in the direction of your right side: Turn right at the corner. 15. off /Of/ [preposition] not on something not on the top or surface of something, especially after being on it: xuống hoặc ra khỏi (một vị trí trên cái gì) falling off a ladder: ngã xuống từ một cái thang The ball rolled off the table: Quả bóng lăn ra khỏi bàn. 16. unseen /Vn`si:n/ [adjective] not seen or known about by anyone. the unseen hand that holds the camera unseen [adverb] without being seen by anyone: He hid unseen under the desk. 17. pick /pIk/ verb [transitive] to choose someone or something from a group: lựa chọn, chọn lọc Out of all the girls he could have gone out with, he picked me. pick up phrasal verb 1 [intransitive or transitive] AMERICAN to make a place clean and neat: dọn dẹp 2 [transitive] to lift something up and take it away: lấy đi Pick up a pamphlet for me too. 3 INFORMAL to buy something. a market where you can pick up some amazing bargains. 4 LISTENING 18. backpack /‘bAkpAk/ noun [count] a large bag that you carry on your back, especially when you are going climbing or walking: ba lô 19. manage /’mAnIdZ/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to succeed in doing something, especially something that needs a lot of effort or skill: giải quyết, xoay sở I don’t know how you manage. I don’t think I can manage a long walk today. manage to do something: I managed to escape by diving into the river. 20. either /’i:DC/ or /’aIDC/ used in negative statements referring to both of two people or things. Jackie could play the piano and sing, whereas I couldn’t do either: Jackie có thể chơi piano và ca hát, còn tôi không biết cái nào hết. either of: I didn’t like either of the candidates: Tôi không thích ứng viên nào hết (2 ứng viên). 21. possession /pC‘zeSn/ noun [count usually plural] something that you own: tài sản Their family home and possessions were destroyed in the fire. possess /pC‘zes/ verb [transitive] FORMAL to own a physical object: sở hữu They were all found guilty of illegally possessing firearms. 22. hardly /‘ha:dlI/ [adverb] used for saying that something is almost not true or almost does not happen at all, and is often used with words like “any” and “ever” : hầu như không It hardly ever rains here in the summer: Ở đây hầu như không mưa vào mùa hè Note: Hardly is not related to the word “hard.” hard /ha:d/ [adjective] difficult to do: khó Some of the questions were very hard. hard [adverb] using a lot of effort: cực lực The Chinese team have worked very hard to get this far in the competition. 23. appreciate /C‘prISIeIt/ verb [transitive never progressive] to understand the true nature of a situation, and realize why it is important or serious: REALIZE: hiểu, nhận ra I began to appreciate the difficulties my father had faced. appreciate how/why/what etc.: Doctors are only now beginning to appreciate how dangerous this drug can be. appreciation /C,prISI‘eISn/ noun [singular or uncount] the ability to understand the true nature of a situation, and realize why it is important or serious: sự am hiểu và thưởng thức 2 She shows little or no appreciation of good music: Cô ấy tỏ ra ít am hiểu hoặc không thưởng thức được nhạc hay. 24. unusual /Vn ’ju:ZuCl/ adjective 1 different from other people or things in a way that is interesting, attractive, or impressive: đặc sắc, đặc biệt The designers have chosen unusual color combinations. 2 not normal, common, or ordinary: lạ, khác thường Residents should contact the police if they notice anything unusual. – opposite USUAL unusually/Vn’ju:ZuClI/ adverb 25. band /bAnd / noun [count] a flat narrow piece of cloth with the ends joined together to form a circle: She wore a band around her hair. a hat band 6 LANGUAGE IN ACTION: WHAT’S IT CALLED? 26. frame /freIm/ noun [count] a structure that forms a border for a picture or mirror and holds it in place: khung frame verb [transitive] to put a picture or photograph in a frame: đóng khung That’s a nice photo – you ought to have it framed. 27. turn /tE:n/ verb 1 [intransitive or transitive] to change the position of your body or head so that you are facing in a different direction: quay (người) She turned and smiled at me. He turned his head and looked around the room. 2 [transitive] to make something move in a circle: xoay Turning this wheel will start the machine. turn on phrasal verb [transitive] to start using a piece of equipment by pressing a button or moving a switch: SWITCH ON: mở Is your computer turned on? turn off phrasal verb[transitive] to stop using a piece of equipment by pressing a button or moving a switch: SWITCH OFF: tắt Will you turn the television off, please? turn up phrasal verb [transitive] to increase the amount of sound, heat, or light produced by a piece of equipment by pressing a button or moving a switch: vặn lớn hơn (âm thanh, sức nóng, ánh sáng…) Add the mussels, turn up the heat, and leave them to steam until all are fully open. — opposite TURN DOWN 28. screwdriver /’skru:,drIvC/ noun [count] a tool used for turning screws: cái tua vít 29. screw /skru:/ noun [count] a thin pointed piece of metal used for fastening one thing to another: đinh vít 30. whatever /wOt’evC/ can be used as a relative pronoun (starting a relative clause that is the subject, object, or complement of another clause):bất cứ cái gì You can choose whatever you like. 31. mime /maIm/ noun [uncount] the use of only the movements of your body and face to tell a story or express yourself: diễn tả bằng điệu bộ a. [count] a play performed using mime: kịch câm b. [count] an actor who performs using mime: diễn viên kịch câm mime verb [intransitive or transitive] to tell a story or express yourself without words, using only the movements of your body and face: diễn kịch câm 32. gesture /’dZestSC/ noun [count] a movement that communicates a feeling or instruction: cử chỉ, điệu bộ make a gesture: Ellen rose from the table, and they made the gesture of rising too. 33. substitute /’sVbstItju:t/ noun [count] something that is used instead of something else: vật thay thế We couldn’t get cream, so we used yogurt as a substitute. a substitute form of energy substitute verb [transitive] to use something new or different instead of what is normally used: thay thế substitute something for something: You can substitute chicken for beef if you don’t like red meat. substitution /,sVbstI’tju:Sn/ noun [count or uncount] the action of replacing someone or something with someone or something else: sự thay thế The substitution was made just minutes before the end of the game. 3 8 LISTENING 34. toaster oven /’tCUstC ’VvCn/ noun [count] a piece of electrical equipment used for making toast: lò nướng 35. drive someone crazy INFORMAL to annoy someone by doing something: làm ai phát điên lên Will you stop that humming, you’re driving me crazy! 36. figure out phrasal verb [transitive] to be able to understand something or solve a problem: hiểu được hoặc nhìn ra vấn đề We had to figure out the connection between the two events. 37. that /DAt/ (adv) [usually in negatives or questions] MAINLY SPOKEN to a very great degree: tới mức đó, như thế, đến thế Three years? I can’t wait that long. 38. ignore /Ig’nc:r/ verb [transitive] to not consider something or not let it influence you: lờ đi We had ignored the fact that it was getting darker. 39. heat /hi:t/ verb 1 [transitive] or heat up to make something hot: làm cái gì nóng lên Heat the oil gently in a large frying pan. 2 [intransitive] to become hot: nóng lên Is the soup heating up? heat noun [singular or uncount] the quality of being hot, or how hot something is: sức nóng The firefighters were driven back by the intense heat and smoke. 40. burn /bE:n/ (past tense and past participle burned or burnt) verb 1 [transitive] to damage or destroy something with fire: đốt Demonstrators burned flags outside the embassy. 2 [intransitive] if a fire or flame burns, it produces light and heat: cháy A fire was burning in the hearth. burning adjective [only before noun] very important: rất quan trọng, cấp thiết one of the most burning issues of the day: một trong những vấn đề nóng bỏng nhất hiện nay. 41. whoops /wUps/ (interjection) dùng khi súyt bị tai nạn, làm vỡ cái gì… Whoops! I nearly dropped the tray: Ối! Tôi súyt đánh rơi cái khay. 42. microwave /’maIkrCUweIv/ noun [count] or microwave oven: cooks food very quickly by passing electricity through it, instead of by heat: lò microwave verb [transitive] to cook food in a microwave. an oven that vi ba 12 READING 43. invent /In’vent/ verb [transitive] to design or create something such as a machine or process that did not exist before: phát minh He invented the technique that allows scientists to examine DNA. invention /In’venSCn / noun [uncount] the act of inventing something: hành động phát minh, sáng tạo invention of: Global communication was transformed by the invention of the Internet. inventor /In’ventC / noun [count] someone who has invented something or whose job is to invent things: người phát minh 44. slipper /’slIpC/ noun [count] a soft comfortable shoe that you wear in your house: dép đi trong nhà 45. itch /ItS/ noun [singular] an unpleasant feeling on your skin that makes you want to SCRATCH it (=rub it with your nails): sự ngứa ngáy itch verb [intransitive] if your skin itches, you have an unpleasant feeling that makes you want to SCRATCH it (=rub your skin with your nails): bị hoặc gây ra ngứa 46. grid /grId/ noun [count] a pattern of straight lines that cross each other to form squares: mạng ô vuông streets laid out on a grid pattern 47. locate /lCU’keIt/ verb [transitive] to find out the exact place where someone or something is: xác định vị trí Locate a town on a map. location / lCU’keISn/ noun [count] the place or position where someone or something is or where something happens: Have they managed to pinpoint the location of the boat yet? 4 48. obvious /’ObvICs/ (adj) clear to almost anyone: hiển nhiên, rõ ràng The most obvious explanation is not always the correct one. obviously (adv) 49. essence /‘esCnts/ noun [singular] the most important part of something, usually the part that gives it its general character: thực chất, bản chất essence of: The essence of their argument is that life cannot be explained by science. essential /I‘sentl/ (adj) most basic and necessary: cốt lõi essential services such as hospitals and public transportation 50. contradiction /,kOntrC‘dIkSnIsentl/ noun [count or uncount] a difference in two or more statements, ideas, stories, etc. that makes it impossible for both or all of them to be true: mâu thuẫn, sự trái ngược contradiction between: He sees no contradiction between his religious beliefs and his membership of the party. contradictory /,kOntrC‘dIktCrI/ (adj) contradictory statements, information, ideas, or beliefs disagree with each other and cannot both or all be true: mâu thuẫn, trái ngược 51. typical /‘tIpIkl/ (adj) like most things of the same type: điển hình, đặc trưng, đặc thù It’s a typical working-class community. typically (adv) 52. process / ‘prCUses/ noun [count] a series of actions that have a particular result: tiến trình, quá trình Learning a language is a slow process. process of: the complex process of legally changing your name in the process: trong khi đang làm I started moving the china ornaments but I dropped a vase in the process: Tôi bắt đầu dọn các đồ trang trí bằng sứ nhưng đang làm thì đánh rơi cái bình. 53. materialism /mC‘tICrIClIsm/ noun [uncount] the belief that money and possessions are the most important aspects of human existence: sự quá thiên về vật chất, chủ nghĩa vật chất 54. evolve / ‘IvOlv/ verb [intransitive] to gradually change and develop over a period of time: tiến triển, phát triển evolve into: They’re hoping the trade talks might evolve into a political dialogue. evolution noun [uncount] the way in which something gradually changes and develops: sự tiến triển evolution of: the evolution of language evolutionary (adj) 55. philosophy /fI‘lOsCfI/ [noun, uncount] the study of theories about the meaning of things such as life, knowledge, and beliefs: triết học He studied politics and philosophy. 56. humor /‘hju:mC/ noun [uncount] the quality that makes something funny: tính chất vui nhộn, buồn cười a novel full of humor humorous (adj) funny: vui nhộn humorously (adv) 57. sole /sCUl/ adjective [only before noun] the sole person or thing is the only one of a particular type: ONLY: duy nhất She is the sole survivor of the crash. 58. corporation /kc:pC’reISn/ noun [count] a large company or business organization: tập đòan American tobacco corporations 59. contribute /kOntrI’bjUSn/ verb [intransitive or transitive] to give money, goods, or your time and effort in order to achieve something, especially when other people are also helping: đóng góp contribute to: Many local businesses offered to contribute to the school rebuilding fund. contribution noun [count] something that you do that helps to achieve something or to make it successful: đóng góp contribution to: her major contribution to the peace process make a contribution: Community police have made a very positive contribution to crime prevention. contributor noun [count] someone who gives money, goods, or their time or effort in order to help to achieve something: người đóng góp contributor to: a major contributor to the campaign 60. bother /’brVDC/ verb [transitive] to annoy someone by interrupting them when they are busy or want to be left alone: làm phiền, làm lo lắng I called your office because I didn’t want to bother you at home. bother noun MAINLY BRITISH [uncount] trouble or difficulty caused by doing something when this is annoying but not very serious: INCONVENIENCE: sự phiền phức, bất tiện 5 ... - tailieumienphi.vn
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