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  1. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Gãc ®Æt b¸nh xe dÉn h−íng WHEEL ALIGNMENT
  2. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Description Description Steering axis Caster Camber inclination Turning radius Toe (1/1)
  3. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Camber Description 0 Negative Positive Camber Camber C b 90° • Uneven wear of tire Excess on positive side Excess on negative side Outside Outside Inside Inside (1/1)
  4. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Camber Negative Camber Camber thrust Negative camber Positive camber Inside Outside Inside Outside Load Load Camber thrust Camber thrust O O (1/1)
  5. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Camber Camber During Cornering Negative camber Centrifugal force Small positive camber Straight-ahead Cornering force driving Positive camber Centrifugal force Large positive camber Straight-ahead Cornering force driving (1/1)
  6. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Camber Zero Camber and Positive Camber Zero camber Positive camber •Reduction of vertical load •Prevention of wheel slip-off F F1 Spindle (1/1)
  7. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Caster and Caster Trail Description Negative Positive -0+ Caster Front Caster angle 90° Caster trail (1/1)
  8. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Caster and Caster Trail Straight-line Stability and Wheel Recovery Straight-line stability due to caster angle without Caster angle with Caster angle Jack-up torque Wheel recovery due to caster trail P P’ T’ T a a’ Trail O’ F’2 F’1 Front F2 F F1 F’ P, P’ : Driving force a, a’ : Steering axis Caster trail O, O’ : Center of tire-road contact area F, F’ : Reactive force F1, F2 : Composite force F F’1, F’2 : Composite force F’ T, T’ T T : Recovery force (1/1)
  9. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Caster and Caster Trail Nachlauf and Vorlauf Geometry Offset Steering axis Large change in trail Nachlauf geometry Offset Caster trail Ordinary geometry Small change in trail Vorlauf geometry (1/1)
  10. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Steering Axis Inclination Description Steering axis inclination Steering axis centerline Wheel centerline 90° Offset L (1/1)
  11. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Steering Axis Inclination Roles of Steering Axis Inclination 1. Reduction of steering effort 2. Reduction of kickback and pulling to one side (1/1)
  12. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Steering Axis Inclination Roles of Steering Axis Inclination 1.Reduction of steering effort 1. Reduction of steering effort • Camber = zero • Steering axis inclination = zero Large offset Steering axis inclination Positive camber Small offset (1/1)
  13. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Steering Axis Inclination Roles of Steering Axis Inclination 2. Reduction of kick-back and 2. Reduction of kickback and pulling to one side pulling to one side/ 3. Improvement straight-line Large moment stability Driving or Large offset braking force Small moment Driving or Small offset braking force (1/1)
  14. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Steering Axis Inclination Roles of Steering Axis Inclination Small Large moment moment Large angle Small angle small offset large offset (1/1)
  15. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Toe (Toe angle, Toe-in and Toe-out) Description Toe angle (toe-in A and toe-out) Toe angle Toe angle Front B Toe-in : A < B Role of toe angle Toe-out : A > B No toe angle Toe-in Gravity (pull) Gravity (pull) (1/1)
  16. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Turning Radius (Wheel Angle, Turning Angle) Description When the rotational angle of left and right wheels is the same (the knuckle arm is parallel to the vehicle centerline) Front Side-slip Tie rod Knuckle arm When adjusting the rotational angle of left and right wheels (the knuckle arm inclined to the vehicle centerline) (1/1)
  17. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Wheel Alignment Service Description 1. General/ 2. Where to measure and cautions concerning tester handling/ 3. Necessity of inspection before measurement of wheel alignment (1/2)
  18. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Wheel Alignment Service Description 4. Importance of chassis-to- ground clearance adjustment 4.Important of chassis-to-ground clearance before alignment measurement/ adjustment before alignment adjustment 5. Road test/ 6. Measurement results and how to use them Bounding *1 Toe Camber Caster Rebounding *2 *1 State in which shock absorbers is shortened *2 State in which shock absorbers is lengthened (2/2)
  19. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Front Wheel Alignment Service Toe-angle 1. Tie rod behind the spindles A A Short Long B B Steering rack housing Tie rod end Steering rack end 2. Double tie rod type A B A=B (1/1)
  20. Diagnosis Technician >> Suspension and Steering >> Wheel Alignment Front Wheel Alignment Service Camber and Caster 1. Separate camber adjustment 2. Separate caster adjustment 3. Simultaneous camber and caster adjustment (1) (2) (3) (1/1)