IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
National Yang-Ming University Taipei, Taiwan
A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION
Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.All rights reserved.
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty:While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and speciﬁcally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or ﬁtness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials.The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation.You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of proﬁt or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.
For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Applications of microdialysis in pharmaceutical science / [edited by] Tung-Hu Tsai. p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-40928-2 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Pharmaceutical chemistry. 2. Drug development. 3. Brain macrodialysis. I. Tsai,Tung-Hu.
[DNLM: 1. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical–methods. 2. Microdialysis–methods. QV 744] RM301.25.A67 2011
Printed in Singapore
oBook ISBN: 9781118011294 ePDF ISBN: 9781118011270 ePub ISBN: 9781118011287
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1 Introduction to Applications of Microdialysis in
Pharmaceutical Science 1
2 Microdialysis in Drug Discovery 7 Christian Höcht
1. Introduction, 7
2. Phases of Drug Development, 8
3. Role of Biomarkers in Drug Development, 11
4. Role of Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacodynamic Modeling in Drug Development, 12
5. Role of Microdialysis in Drug Development, 15
6. Microdialysis Sampling in the Drug Development of Speciﬁc Therapeutic Groups, 20
7. Regulatory Aspects of Microdialysis Sampling in Drug Development, 29
8. Conclusions, 30
3 Analytical Considerations for Microdialysis Sampling 39 Pradyot Nandi, Courtney D. Kuhnline, and Susan M. Lunte
1. Introduction, 39
2. Analytical Methodologies, 49 3. Conclusions, 75
4 Monitoring Dopamine in the Mesocorticolimbic and Nigrostriatal Systems by Microdialysis: Relevance for Mood Disorders and Parkinson’s Disease 93
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Massimo Pierucci, and Vincenzo Di Matteo
1. Introduction, 93
2. Pathophysiology of Serotonin–Dopamine Interaction: Implication for Mood Disorders, 94
3. Dopamine Depletion in the Nigrostriatal System: Parkinson’s Disease, 109
4. Conclusions, 120
5 Monitoring Neurotransmitter Amino Acids by Microdialysis: Pharmacodynamic Applications 151
Sandrine Parrot, Bernard Renaud, Luc Zimmer, and Luc Denoroy
1. Introduction, 151
2. Monitoring Neurotransmitter Amino Acids by Microdialysis, 152
3. Basic Research on Receptors, 162
4. Psychostimulants and Addictive Drugs, 168 5. Analgesia, 177
6. Ischemia–Anoxia, 182
7. Conclusions and Perspectives, 188
6 Microdialysis as a Tool to Unravel Neurobiological
Mechanisms of Seizures and Antiepileptic Drug Action 207
Ilse Smolders, Ralph Clinckers, and Yvette Michotte
1. Introduction, 207
2. Microdialysis to Characterize Seizure-Related Neurobiological and Metabolic Changes in Animal Models and in Humans, 209
3. Microdialysis as a Chemoconvulsant Delivery Tool in Animal Seizure Models, 217
4. Microdialysis Used to Elucidate Mechanisms of Electrical Brain Stimulation and Neuronal Circuits Involved in Seizures, 218
5. Microdialysis Used to Unravel the Mechanisms of Action of Established Antiepileptic Drugs and New Therapeutic Strategies, 219
6. Microdialysis Studies in the Search for Mechanisms of Adverse Effects of Clinically Used Drugs, Drugs of Abuse, and Toxins, 224
7. Combining Microdialysis with Other Complementary Neurotechniques to Unravel Mechanisms of Seizures and Epilepsy, 226
nguon tai.lieu . vn