Tài liệu miễn phí Y Tế - Sức Khoẻ

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Review Adolescent sexual and reproductive health

Almost all of the 250 MSM surveyed knew that HIV/AIDS could be contracted through sexual intercourse and 80 percent cited condoms as a way to prevent the disease, although actual use does not reflect knowledge. Many respondents reported having experienced STI-related symptoms. For example, 42 percent had had burning or penile discharge and 22 percent reported having had lesions or pustules on their anus (Table 2). When asked about the causes of penile discharge or burning, most respondents mentioned such non-viral or bacterial causes as poor hygiene, irritation from intercourse without sufficient lubrication, spicy foods, long periods of abstinence, masturbation, too much sex, or other illnesses. More than a third said they had no idea of...

8/30/2018 2:01:55 AM +00:00

ABC of sexual health: Assessing and managing male sexual problems

In many countries of the world, government health ministries and education ministries work separately with different goals. However, the evidence is growing from across the world that health and education are inextricably linked to each other and to other issues, including poverty and income level. This is evident in the importance the United Nations Millennium Development Goals attach to education and health in setting out their development targets. It is now clear that education has the power to improve not only economic prosperity in a country, but that it has a major effect on health outcomes. This is particularly true...

8/30/2018 2:01:54 AM +00:00

Sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents perinatally infected with HIV in Uganda

Within developing countries, health sector reform, often including decen- tralized priority setting, increases the information and advocacy burden for inclusion of SRH concerns. Central functions (like operating logistic systems and service quality control) require high-level commitment and a supportive policy and regulatory framework. The international discussion on SRH emphasizes an outcome-oriented public health approach but people react to multiple dimensions. Strong pas- sions and intensive debates continue on a range of issues: abortion, adolescent SRH and even family planning. These issues elicit renewed discussion at every relevant intergovernmental conference. Donor policies can advance or stif le discussion and reproductive health program development. ...

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Male Reproductive Health Disorders and the Potential Role of Exposure to Environmental Chemicals

Creating economic development is connected to increasing productivity and investments in areas such as education, nutrition and health. Population momentum joined with declining fertility rates provides a unique chance to spur economic development as the work force increases and the dependency burden of society decreases. However, this requires policies that create jobs for the growing work force. The young age dependency burden in the least devel- oped countries and regions creates expanding demands for resources to and investment in education, nutrition and health just to keep pace with popula- tion growth. The projected declines in birth rates, should adequate resources help realize...

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THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY INISTRY OF PLANNING, ECONOMY AND EMPOWERMENT 2006

Until the HIV/AIDS epidemic, mortality levels were expected to continue to decline in all regions. However, this tendency has been reversed in coun- tries where HIV/AIDS is most prevalent, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Life expectancy at birth is lower in the developing regions than in the more developed regions but it is projected to increase in both less and least develop- ing countries. This is dependent on successful implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs and on other health interventions. Migra- tion, both internal and international, also conditions the prospect for progress towards the MDGs....

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THE WORLD BANK’S REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTION PLAN 2010-2015

Population trends affect the course of and prospects for poverty reduction. Diverse and changing population dynamics have had dramatic impacts in sev- eral world regions. Sub-Saharan Africa remains in a poverty trap where demo- graphic factors – high fertility, high infant and child mortality, and excess adult mortality (including that due to HIV/AIDS) – play significant roles. Eastern Asia, on the other hand, has seen dramatic declines in the number of persons living in income poverty. Recent analyses suggest that 25–40 per- cent of economic growth is attributable to the effects of decreased mortality (health affects productivity) and declining fertility (allowing a deepening...

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REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF TROPICAL FOREST PLANTS

SRH programs can help improve the nutritional status of women and their children and advance progress on the hunger and maternal and child health targets. Supplemental feeding programs for pregnant women, improving wom- en’s knowledge of the nutritional requirements of themselves and their children and increasing women’s power to negotiate access to needed nutrition must be part of a multi-intervention strategy. Closely spaced pregnancies and the associated high fertility levels place women at an increased risk of anemia and other conditions of absolute and relative malnutrition. Progress in alleviating hunger also requires targeted inputs to improve agri- cultural productivity. Community level cooperative action...

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Public Choices, Private Decisions: Sexual and Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals

The world has an unprecedented opportunity to improve the lives of billions of people by adopting practical approaches to meeting the Millennium Develop- ment Goals (MDGs). At the request of the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the UN Millennium Project has identified practical strategies to eradicate pov- erty by scaling up investments in infrastructure and human capital while pro- moting gender equality and environmental sustainability. These strategies are described in the UN Millennium Project’s report Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, which was co- authored by the coordinators of the UN Millennium Project Task Forces....

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Probability and Statistics by Example

The original motivation for writing this book was rather personal. The first author, in the course of his teaching career in the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics (DPMMS), University of Cambridge, and St John’s College, Cambridge, had many painful experiences when good (or even brilliant) students, who were interested in the subject of mathematics and its applications and who performed well during their first academic year, stumbled or nearly failed in the exams. This led to great frustration, which was very hard to overcome in subsequent undergraduate years. A conscientious tutor is always sympathetic to such misfortunes, but even pointing out a student’s obvious weaknesses (if...

8/30/2018 1:52:59 AM +00:00

The Phylogenetic Handbook

The idea for The Phylogenetic Handbook was conceived during an early edition of theWorkshop on Virus Evolution andMolecular Epidemiology. The rationale was simple: to collect the information being taught in the workshop and turn it into a comprehensive, yet simply written textbook with a strong practical component. Marco and Annemie took up this challenge, and, with the help of many experts in the field, successfully produced the First Edition in 2003. The resulting text was an excellent primer for anyone taking their first computational steps into evolutionary biology, and, on a personal note, inspired me to try out many of the techniques introduced by the book in my...

8/30/2018 1:52:59 AM +00:00

Brownian Motion and Martingales in Analysis

the years that have passed since the pioneering work of Kakutani, Kac, and Doob, it has been shown that Brownian motion can be used to prove many results in classical analysis, primarily concerning the behavior of harmonic and analytic functions and the solutions of certain partial differential equations. In spite of the many pages that have been written on this subject, the results in this area are not widely known, primarily because they appear in articles that are scattered throughout the literature and are written in a style appropriate for technical journals. The purpose of this book, then, is to bring some of these results together and to...

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Long Shot

Amer ic a faced a host of biological threats to health and security at the turn of the twenty-first century. Between 1990 and 2009, the United States contended with a foreign biological weapons program, bioterrorism, and a pandemic. Concerns about Saddam Hussein’s biological weapon caches sent the U.S. military scrambling to immunize troops against smallpox and anthrax. The 2001 anthrax attacks demonstrated that non-state actors could terrorize civilian populations with biological weapons as well. A strange outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 and new avian and swine flu strains provided further reminders of the pandemic potential of infectious diseases....

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A Wealth of Numbers

HOW DID ORDINARY PEOPLE THINK ABOUT MATHEMATICS IN THE PAST? How did they write about it? How did they learn it and teach it? If—like me—you think those questions are fascinating, read on. Mathematics has been written about and thought about in all kinds of different ways over the centuries, and, since the beginning of printing more than 500 years ago, whole genres of mathematical writing have appeared and, often, disappeared. This book brings together a taste of many of those kinds of writing. As a result, it’s more like a spice rack than a finished recipe—a rambling garden of delights rather than an orderly display of prize blooms....

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PRAC T I S I N G HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

In the last few years, there has been an exciting growth of interest in questions about what we do as human geographers and how we do it. Reflecting the general shift within the social sciences towards a reflexive notion of knowledge, geographers have begun to question the constitution of the discipline – what we know, how we know it and what difference this makes both to the type of research we do and who participates in it with us either as colleagues or research subjects … An intrinsic part of these debates has been a greater self-consciousness about research methods. (McDowell, 1992a: 399–400)...

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Transitions Between Contexts of Mathematical Practices

I’m the worst, because as I said there’s no way I can get it into my head, even though I pay attention’ (Abreu, 1993, p. 124). This was how Severina, daughter of an unschooled sugar-cane farm worker, judged her performance in school mathematics. She entered school at the age of 6. At 14 she was still in year 5. She repeated year 4 three times. After school she worked on the production of manioc flour, and also helped her father in sugar-cane farming during the harvest. She acknowledged that people in sugar-cane farming could do sums: ‘Yes, they do, but I think they do sums in their...

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A covenant of creatures

Another book on Emmanuel Levinas? In the context of the incomplete and still unpredictable “return of religion” to academic and public discourse, the work of Levinas becomes more pertinent, even as criticism of it becomes more caustic. As the interaction but also the tension between the religious and the secular increases, Levinas stands out among modern thinkers for the original way he weaves together the religious and the secular without opposition. In 1922, Carl Schmitt formulated his now well known dictum that “all the significant concepts of the theory of the modern state are secularized theological concepts.”1 According to this view, the contemporary deployment of concepts such as sovereignty,...

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A FORAY INTO THE WORLDS OF ANIMALS AND HUMANS

A FORAY INTO THE WORLDS OF ANIMALS AND HUMANS 1 5 1 • 0 4 1 3 2 O V 0 .CARY WOLFE, SERIES EDITOR 12 A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans with A Theory of Meaning Jakob von Uexkiill 11 Insect Media: An Archaeology of Animals and Technology Jussi Parikka 10 Cosmopolitics II Isabelle Stengers 9 Cosmopolitics I Isabelle Stengers What Is Posthumanism ? Cary Wolfe Political Affect: Connecting the Social and the Somatic John Protevi Animal Capital: Rendering Life in Biopolitical Times Nicole Shukin Dorsality: Thinking Back through Technology and Politics David Wills Bios: Biopolitics and...

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Soul Talk, Song Language

In this volume of interviews and collected writings, Joy Harjo acts as a guide, taking us on a journey into her identity as a woman and as an artist, poised between poetry and music, encompassing tribal heritage, productive reassessments, and comparisons with the American cultural patrimony. But even before presenting herself in an exquisitely literary context, she proudly underlines her Indian roots, and this allembracing assertion unceasingly leaves a profoundly coherent mark on form and content. Thus these interviews accompany the reader on a human and professional itinerary, where the reading of her poems is often an illuminating exegetic commentary, directly or more often perceptibly, but at the same time...

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CREATIVITY AND EARLY YEARS EDUCATION

The 'All Our Futures' report was published in 1999. The report was commissioned by the government following the 1997 publication of the White Paper 'Excellence in Schools' and alongside the revisions to the National Curriculum, including the advent of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies (DfES 1998 and 1999 respectively). Its messages were long overdue to most teachers of early years and primary age children as this was the first time in over a decade - since the advent of the National Curriculum - that creativity was reinstated in the political agenda. Not only was the focus on creativity welcome but the messages the report contained were forthright and...

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Translational Vascular Medicine

This is the third volume in the series of books on translational medicine gleaned from the annual vascular biology and clinical medicine workshop held at the Royal College of Physicians. The chapters are invited papers presented by internationally recognized basic science and clinical experts. The aim of the workshop is to bring basic scientists and clinicians together to discuss their work and perspectives in areas of cardiovascular medicine and biology. We ask them to address the areas which are likely to be important in the future and the associated challenges....

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Seeing Red

Everyone feels angry at times. By itself, anger is not a problem. It is simply a feeling, just like feeling happy, excited, scared or sad. However, if it’s being stuffed or becomes explosive, anger can turn harmful and destructive. Eventually, our anger can control everything we do and damage important relationships with others. Seeing Red is a curriculum designed to help elementary and middle-school aged students better understand their anger so they can make healthy and successful choices and build strong relationships. The overall objectives of Seeing Red are for participants to realize that they can control their behavior and develop practical skills and strategies to manage...

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Philosophical Essays

GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ was born on July 1, 1646, in Leipzig. His father, Friedrich, a scholar and a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Leipzig, died in September 1652, when Leibniz was only six years old. But despite his father's early death, the younger Leibniz was later to recall how his father had instilled in him a love of learning. Learning was, indeed, to become an important part of his life. Leibniz began school when he was seven years old. Even so, he later describes himself as selftaught.' Leibniz seems to have taught himself Latin at age seven or eight, in order to read editions...

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.The Contest Problem Book VAmerican High School Mathematics Examinations and American Invitational

.The Contest Problem Book V American High School Mathematics Examinations and American Invitational Mathematics Examinations 198S1988 Problems and solutions compiled and augmented by George Berzsenyi Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Stephen B Maurer Swarthmore College THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA .NEW MATHEMATICAL LIBRARY published by The Mathematical Association of America Editorial Committee Underwood Dudley, Editor DePauw University Ross Honsberger, University of Waterloo Daniel Kennedy, Baylor School Michael J. McAsey, Bradley University Mark E. Saul, Bronxville Schools Peter Ungar Anneli Lax, Consulting Editor New York University The New Mathematical Library (NML) was begun in 1961 by the School Mathematics Study Group to make available to high school students short expository...

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Kant, Religion, and Politics

In Kant’s writings, the topic of religion occupies a strategic space at the confluence of epistemology, ethics, and politics. Inquiries into the validity of religious truth claims and the possible meanings of religious writings and images form a vital part of Kant’s ethical and political project. This project focuses on advancing human autonomy, both individually and in terms of political concerns with shared worldviews, laws, and rights. In its mature form, this line of inquiry begins with the Critique of Pure Reason, is further developed in Kant’s ethical writings and the Critique of the Power of Judgment, and reaches fruition in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. This...

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LEARNING DISCOURSE

While looking at the papers collected in this volume one feels that, in spite of their diverse themes, these seven studies have quite a lot in common and, as a collection, seem to be signaling the existence of a distinct, relatively new type of research in mathematics education. A comparison with, say, a fifteen-year-old issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics or of Journal for Research in Mathematics Education would reveal a long series of differences.

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Coping with Stress at University a Survival Guide

Stress and university. These are not two words you often see together! Many people recollect university as being the ‘best days of their lives’ or ‘a great laugh’ and we hope that this will be the case for you too. However, university is associated with huge change, and for most people change brings stress. At university there is a need to be more proactive in your studies, your social life and your ability to manage on your own. Although this transition is often depicted as being good fun, many students have difficulty in dealing with the fine balance between freedom and autonomy coupled with self-reliance and being...

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The Muscle Energy Concepts

The History of the Development of Muscle Energy Concepts The development and refinement of what is now known as Muscle Energy Technique has been a process in evolution over the past fifty years. Muscle Energy Technique (MET), which originated with Fred L. Mitchell, Sr., continues to develop and evolve, first in the hands and minds of those who were privileged to study and learn the method directly from Fred Sr. (the 'second generation'), and now, as the third and fourth generation of students of the method apply it in their practices. In the late 1940s while I was still in high school, Fred Mitchell and Paul...

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THE PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

One reason why the study of thermodynamics is so valuable to students of chemistry and chemical engineering is that it is a theory which can be developed in its entirety, without gaps in the argument, on the basis of only a moderate knowledge of mathematics. It is therefore a self-contained logical structure, and much benefit--and incidentally much pleasure-may be obtained from its study. Another reason is that it is one of the few branches of physics or chemistry which is largely independent of any assumptions concerning the nature of the fundamental particles. It does not depend on 'mechanisms', such as are used in theories of molecular structure and kinetics, and...

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Traditional and novel risk factors in Cellular pathology

In 1856, Rudolf Virchow published “Cellular pathology” based on macroscopic and microscopic observation of diseases, and described a triad of factors on thrombosis. The three components were vascular change, blood flow alteration, and abnormalities of blood constituents. Although Virchow originally referred to venous thrombosis, the theory can also be applied to arterial thrombosis, and it is considered that atherothrombus formation is regulated by the thrombogenicity of exposed plaque contents, local hemorheology, and blood factors. Thrombus formation on a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque is a critical event that leads to atherothrombosis. However, it does not always result in complete thrombotic occlusion with subsequent acute symptomatic events (Sato et al., 2009)....

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Trees

The definition of a tree accepted by science and the forestry industry is “A woody plant (arboreal perennial) usually with a single columnar stem capable of reaching six metres in height”. Less than six metres (21ft) of potential height is regarded as a shrub.This definition is not absolute; gardeners contest the height threshold, some preferring five metres (17ft) and others choosing a threshold of three metres (13ft). It is likely that bonsai enthusiasts would entirely dismiss any figures suggested. Horticultural selections of dwarf conifers also fall into a grey area usually called “dwarf trees”....

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