Thermochemical Processes

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Thermochemical Processes. This first part is concerned with processes in which the kinetic behaviour of a gaseous phase is rate-determining. The range of processes includes some which are carried out in vacuum systems in which Knudsen or free evaporation occurs from a condensed phase, to transport reactions where a chemical reaction occurs between a solid and the gaseous phase to produce molecular species containing some or all of the elements occurring in the solid phase. In this latter case, the examples are drawn from those systems in which the mechanism of transport of these molecules through the gaseous phase is rate-determining..... Cũng như các giáo án bài giảng khác được thành viên giới thiệu hoặc do sưu tầm lại và giới thiệu lại cho các bạn với mục đích nâng cao trí thức , chúng tôi không thu tiền từ thành viên ,nếu phát hiện nội dung phi phạm bản quyền hoặc vi phạm pháp luật xin thông báo cho chúng tôi,Ngoài tài liệu này, bạn có thể download đồ án thạc sĩ tiến sĩ phục vụ nghiên cứu Một số tài liệu download thiếu font chữ không xem được, có thể máy tính bạn không hỗ trợ font củ, bạn tải các font .vntime củ về cài sẽ xem được.

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Thermochemical Processes Principles and Models Thermochemical Processes Principles and Models C.B. Alcock DSc, FRSC OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEWDELHI Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd First published 2001  C.B. Alcock 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Alcock, C. B. Thermochemical processes:principles and models 1 Thermodynamics 2 Chemical processes 3 Materials at high temperatures I Title 660.20969 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Alcock, C. B. Thermochemical processes:principles and models/C.B. Alcock. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0 7506 5155 5 1 Thermodynamics 2 Chemical processes 3 Materials at high temperatures I Title TP155.2.T45 T47 2000 6600.2969–dc21 00-049367 ISBN 0 7506 5155 5 Typeset by Laser Words, Chennai, India Printed in Great Britain Contents Preface xi Part 1: Processes with gaseous reaction control 1 1 Vapour deposition processes 3 Vapour deposition for the preparation of thin films 3 Vapour pressure data for the elements 4 The kinetic theory of a gas in a container 4 Molecular effusion 6 Vapour deposition of elements 6 The deposition rate on a cool substrate 8 Vapour deposition of alloys 8 Vapour deposition of compounds 10 Free evaporation coefficients of solids 11 Other techniques for the preparation of thin films 16 Single and epitaxial films in semiconducting systems 16 Thin film production by the sputtering of metals 17 The production of nanoparticles 20 Coating with thin diamond films 22 Plasma evaporation and pyrolysis of carbon to form Fullerenes 23 Materials science and the formation of thin films 24 The formation of nuclei from the vapour phase 24 The formation of a film from nuclei 28 Grain growth in the initial deposit 30 Point defects in solids 31 Edge and screw dislocations 33 Interfacial energies in solid systems 35 Bibliography 38 Appendix: Vapour pressure data for the elements 38 2 Gaseous reaction kinetics and molecular decomposition 42 Theories of reaction kinetics 42 Thermal energies and the structures of molecules 43 The collision theory of gaseous reactions 45 Transition state theory of gaseous reactions 47 Empirical estimates of the activation energy 49 The order of chemical reactions 50 vi Contents Time dependence of the extent of reaction 52 Chain reactions 52 Combustion chain reactions 53 Chain reactions in the combustion of gaseous fuels 56 Fuel/air mixing in combustion systems 58 The thermal efficiencies of combustion engines 59 Bibliography 62 Molecular dissociation and chain reactions in chemical vapour deposition 62 Thermochemical data for the dissociation of gaseous molecules 63 Bond character in gaseous heteronuclear compounds 64 Hybridization of covalent bonds 66 Bond energies of gaseous polyvalent metal halides 67 Thermal decomposition of hydrides and organometallic compounds 68 Bibliography 71 Radiation and electron decomposition of molecules 72 Photochemical reactions 73 Dissociation cross-sections 75 Substrate heating by transmitted radiation 77 Radiation and convection cooling of the substrate 82 Laser production of thin films 82 Molecular decomposition in plasma systems 84 Bibliography 85 3 Vapour phase transport processes 86 Vapour transport processes 86 Thermodynamics and the optimization of vapour phase transport 86 The direction of vapour transport across a thermal gradient 89 The choice of halogen in transport reactions 91 The vapour phase refining and separation of metals 91 The thermodynamics of the vapour phase transport of compounds 93 Multicomponent thermodynamics in gaseous systems 95 Sintering by vapour phase transport 99 Grain growth by vapour phase transport 100 Vapour transport in flowing systems 102 Transport along a thermal gradient 102 Mass transport across a flowing gas 103 Material deposition from a flowing gas 106 Transport and thermal properties of gases 108 Equations of state for ideal and real gases 112 Molecular interactions and the properties of real gases 114 Bibliography 117 4 Heterogeneous gas–solid surface reactions 118 The zeroth order reaction 118 Adsorption of gases on solids 119 Surface structures of catalytic materials 124 Adsorption and the surface energies of metals 125 ... - 671702