The Wind Energy Handbook
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Wind Energy Handbook
Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition. Tony Burton, Nick Jenkins, David Sharpe and Ervin Bossanyi. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-69975-1
Wind Energy Handbook Second Edition
Wind Energy Consultant, Powys, UK
Nick Jenkins Cardiff University, UK
Wind Energy Consultant, Essex, UK
GL Garrad Hassan, Bristol, UK
A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication
This edition ﬁrst published 2011 ° 2011, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
First Edition published in 2001
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom
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Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Wind energy handbook / Tony Burton ...[et al.]. – 2nd ed. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-470-69975-1 (hardback)
1. Wind power–Handbooks, manuals, etc. TJ820.H35 2011
I. Burton, Tony, 1947–
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Print ISBN: 978-0-470-69975-1 E-PDF ISBN: 978-1-119-99272-1
O-book ISBN: 978-1-119-99271-4 E-Pub ISBN: 978-1-119-99392-6 mobi ISBN: 978-1-119-99393-3
Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Aptara Inc., New Delhi, India.
About the Authors xvii
Preface to Second Edition xix
Acknowledgements for First Edition xxi
Acknowledgements for Second Edition xxiii
List of Symbols xxv
Figures C1 and C2 – Co-ordinate Systems xxxv
1 Introduction 1 1.1 Historical development 1 1.2 Modern wind turbines 4 1.3 Scope of the book 6 References 7
Further reading 8
2 The wind resource 9 2.1 The nature of the wind 9 2.2 Geographical variation in the wind resource 10 2.3 Long-term wind speed variations 11 2.4 Annual and seasonal variations 12 2.5 Synoptic and diurnal variations 14 2.6 Turbulence 14 2.6.1 The nature of turbulence 14
2.6.2 The boundary layer 16 2.6.3 Turbulence intensity 18 2.6.4 Turbulence spectra 20 2.6.5 Length scales and other parameters 22 2.6.6 Asymptotic limits 24 2.6.7 Cross-spectra and coherence functions 25 2.6.8 The Mann model of turbulence 28
2.7 Gust wind speeds 28 2.8 Extreme wind speeds 29 2.8.1 Extreme winds in standards 30
2.9 Wind speed prediction and forecasting 32 2.9.1 Statistical methods 32 2.9.2 Meteorological methods 33
2.10 Turbulence in wakes and wind farms 33 2.11 Turbulence in complex terrain 36 References 36
3 Aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 The actuator disc concept 40
3.2.1 Simple momentum theory 41 3.2.2 Power coefﬁcient 42 3.2.3 The Lanchester-Betz limit 43 3.2.4 The thrust coefﬁcient 43
3.3 Rotor disc theory 44 3.3.1 Wake rotation 44 3.3.2 Angular momentum theory 46 3.3.3 Maximum power 48
3.4 Vortex cylinder model of the actuator disc 49 3.4.1 Introduction 49 3.4.2 Vortex cylinder theory 50 3.4.3 Relationship between bound circulation and the induced velocity 51 3.4.4 Root vortex 51 3.4.5 Torque and power 53 3.4.6 Axial ﬂow ﬁeld 53 3.4.7 Tangential ﬂow ﬁeld 53 3.4.8 Axial thrust 55 3.4.9 Radial ﬂow ﬁeld 56 3.4.10 Conclusions 57
3.5 Rotor blade theory (blade-element/momentum theory) 57 3.5.1 Introduction 57 3.5.2 Blade element theory 57 3.5.3 The blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory 59 3.5.4 Determination of rotor torque and power 62
3.6 Breakdown of the momentum theory 64 3.6.1 Free-stream/wake mixing 64 3.6.2 Modiﬁcation of rotor thrust caused by ﬂow separation 64 3.6.3 Empirical determination of thrust coefﬁcient 65
3.7 Blade geometry 66 3.7.1 Introduction 66 3.7.2 Optimal design for variable speed operation 66 3.7.3 A simple blade design 70 3.7.4 Effects of drag on optimal blade design 73 3.7.5 Optimal blade design for constant speed operation 74